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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
INDUSTRIALIZATION: CAUSES
• Agricultural revolution
o Replaced open field system with continuous rotation
• 1763: Britain had realized its goal of monopolizing a vast trade and colonial empire for its benefits, this marked a major step toward the indust rev.
• creation of cotton textile industry
MAIN CITIES AND CONDITIONS IN CITIES
• Liverpool and Manchester: financial/tech success, railroads

More money, more poverty
CONDITIONS IN FACTORIES
• factories resemble poorhouses
• not allowed to form unions
• came as family units (factory act broke this)
• women suffered/some thought there was sexual exploitation
SIGNIFICANT INVENTIONS AND INVENTORS
• James Hargreaves/Richard Arkwright: spinning machines meant to inc. prod. of cotton thread
• James Watt: efficient steam engine
o Also gave boom to the iron industry
• George Stephenson: railroad
o Reduced cost/uncertainty of shipping freight overload
o Markets became larger/nationwide
o Growth of urban workers, demand for unskilled labor
DAVID RICARDO
• “iron law of wages”: due to population growth, wages will always be subsistence level (just enough to keep from starving)
ADAM SMITH
• said freely competitive private enterprise would mean greater income for all
• laissez-faire
THOMAS MALTHUS
• said population will grow faster than food supply
• only way to limit famine/disease was to marry late in life
LUDDITES
• handicraft workers who didn’t approve of factory conditions
• attacked factories in N.eng and smashed new machines
CHARTIESTS
• political democracy was the goal
• all men should get right to vote

Had 6 demands. #1 was univ. male suffrage
BRITISH PARLIAMENT AND FACTORY ACTS
• Factory Act of 1833: limited factory work children 9-13 to 8 hrs. and 14-18 12 hours. Prohibited employing ages 9 and younger. Broke pattern of family units in factory
• Mines Act of 1842: Prohibited underground work for all women & boys under 10
EDWIN CHADWICK
• Said disease/death cause poverty
• “sanitary idea”: disease could be prevented by cleaning up urban environment
• his reports became basis of Britain’s first public health law. modern urban sewer system
RESULTS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION
• revealed the bad city conditions
• raised poverty, more people, lived better/power
GREAT REFORM BILL OF 1832
Doubles # of men who can vote from 8 - 16%

votes taken away from rural to urban people