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30 Cards in this Set

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John Brown
He was an American abolitionist who attempted to end slavery through the use of violence. This increased the tension between the North and South. His life ended when he was hanged for murder and treason. He is regarded a martyr to the cause of human freedom.
Election of 1860
A united republican party attempted to appeal more to the North in order to win the campaign and developed an economic program to amend the damages of the 1857 depression. They nominated Abraham Lincoln, who held a moderate view on slavery. The democrats nominated two candidates, Douglas and Breckenridge, each with opposing viewpoints on the slavery issue. The constitutional party, created by Whigs, nominated John Bell, who had the desire to preserve the Union
Crittendon Compromise
This was an attempt to preserve the Union, which did not pass. The amendments were to bar the federal government from intervening in southern states’ decision of slavery, to restore the Missouri Compromise, and to guarantee protection of slavery below this line. It also repealed personal liberty laws.
Millenialism
In the 1830s, William Miller claimed the Second coming of Christ would occur in 1843. After the failure of his prophecies, his disciples divided into smaller Adventist groups of which the two largest are the Advent Christian Church and the Seventh-Day Adventists.
Burned Over District
Area in upstate NY near the Erie Canal that was famous for its reform enthusiasms and its hell fire and damnation sermons.
Shakers
Founded by Mother Anna Lee in 1776. This communal society favored a simple, highly structured, and celibate lifestyle.
New Harmony
This industrial utopia favored education and claims the first public library. Nathanial Hawthorne was once a resident.
Oneida Colony
This NY socialist utopian society preached free love through corporate marriage, birth control, gender equality, and eugenics. Known for the creation of fine silverware. Leader fled to Canada under the charge of adultery.
Brook Farm
Massachusetts utopian society formed on the basis of transcendentalism with plain living and high thinking.
Amana Community
Iowan perfectionist communal society that attempted to become an industrial society without poverty and unemployment.
Dorothea Dix
In 1843, after discovering the maltreatment of the insane in 1841, presented a memorial to the state legislature which described the abhor conditions in which the insane were kept. She, along with help from Horace Mann and Samuel G. Howe, led the fight for asylums and more humane treatment for the insane.
American Temperance Union
Created in 1826, they followed Lyman Beecher in demanding total abstinence from alcohol. They denounced the evil of drinking and promoted the expulsion of drinkers from church.
Nativism
The Irish immigration surge during the second quarter of the nineteenth century revived anti-Catholic fever. In 1835 Morse warned that the governments of Europe were filling the US with Catholic immigrants as part of a conspiracy to undermine and destroy republican institutions. This ideal was politicized with the Know Nothing Party.
Seneca Falls
Under the eye of Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, this convention adopted resolutions for women’s rights.
Abolitionism
This was the movement in opposition to slavery, often demanding immediate, uncompensated emancipation of all slaves. This was generally considered radical, and there were only a few adamant abolitionists prior to the Civil War. Almost all abolitionists advocated legal, but not social equality for blacks.
William Lloyd Garrison
He was a radical who founded The Liberator, an abolitionist newspaper, in Boston in 1831. He advocated immediate, uncompensated emancipation and even civil equality for blacks. This made him a famous and highly controversial abolitionist whose main tactic was to stir up emotions on the slavery issue.
Dred Scott Decision
Chief Justice Roger B. Taney ruled that slaves were not citizens and because he was a slave in 1856, therefore, he did not have the right to sue in federal court. It was determined that temporary residence in an area did not make one free, and that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional because it violated the fifth amendment, which did not allow Congress or territorial governments to exclude slavery from any area. Republicans became more suspicious of Slave Power in Congress.
Sumner Brooks Affair
A senator from Massachusetts, made a speech titled, "The Crime Against Kansas," denouncing slavery, and, at the same time, ridiculing the South Carolina senator, Charles Butler, in 1856. Preston Brooks, Butler’s nephew came into the Senate chamber and beat the Massachusetts senator about the head and shoulders with a cane. Preston Brooks became a southern hero over this event.
Election of 1856
This election was between John C. Fremont of the Republican Party, Millard Fillmore of the Know-Nothing Party, and James Buchanan of Democratic Party. Fillmore’s inexperience weakened his party, increasing the popularity of the Republicans. Buchanan won the election.
Republican Party
The party was formed in 1854 by northern Democrats who left the party because of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Former Whigs and Know-Nothings were party members, also. All opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act and believed that slavery should be banned from all territories of the nation, except those states where slavery already existed.
Oneida Colony
This NY socialist utopian society preached free love through corporate marriage, birth control, gender equality, and eugenics. Known for the creation of fine silverware. Leader fled to Canada under the charge of adultery.
Nat Turner’s Rebellion
He was a slave who became convinced that he was chosen by God to lead his people to freedom. In Virginia in 1831, he led about 70 blacks into a revolt against their masters. Before the uprising was brought to a halt by white militiamen, 55 whites were killed in the rebellion and many blacks were lynched by white mobs. He and fifteen of his companions were hanged. The rebellion convinced white southerners that a successful slave insurrection was a constant threat.
Gabriel Prosser
He a Virginia slave who planned a slave uprising in 1800 with the intent of creating a free black state. They intended to seize the federal arsenal at Richmond, but the plan was betrayed by other slaves. He and his comrades were captured by the state militia and executed.
Denmark Vesey
He was a slave from South Carolina who bought his freedom with $1,500 that he won in a lottery. In 1822, he planned to lead a group of slaves in an attacking Charleston and stealing the city’s arms. However, the plan was betrayed by other slaves, resulting in the hanging of the rebels.
Stephen Austin
In the 1820s, he was a highly successful empresario, who had contracted 300 American families to move to Texas by 1825. After Mexican president Santa Anna invaded Texas in1835, he became one of the leaders of the Texas Revolution.
Alamo
This was a mission in San Antonio, Texas, that became the setting for and important episode in Texan war for independence from Mexico. In 1836, Mexican forces under Santa Anna besieged San Antonio and the city’s 200 Texan defenders retreated into the abandoned mission. All of the Texans were killed in their attempt to fight the Mexican army.
TEXAN WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE
In 1836, Mexican president Santa Anna invaded Texas and brutally crushed the rebels at the battle of the Alamo. However, the leader to the Texans, Sam Houston, retaliated at the battle of San Jacinto. At San Jacinto, the Texans killed half of Santa Anna’s men in 15 minutes and Houstan captured Santa Anna and forced him to sign a treaty recognizing Texan independence. The Mexican government never recognized this treaty, but could no longer afford to fight, so Texas became the Lone Star Republic.
Sam Houston
He was a military commander and an American statesman who served in House of Representatives from 1823 to 1827. In 1836, Houston was chosen as president of the Texan rebels. He led them in the battle of San Jacinto, where he captured Santa Anna and achieved Texan independence.
MANIFEST DESTINY
This was the term used, throughout the 1840s, to describe Americans’ belief that they were destined by God to spread their beliefs across the continent. This sense of duty created a sense of unity among the nation and stimulated westward expansion. The term itself was coined by John O’Sullivan in an 1845 magazine article. The concept justified westward expansion in all its forms and ramifications, including the Mexican War, the persecution of the Indians, and other such ethnocentric acts.
Mormons
This religion was founded in 1827 by Joseph Smith. Their church is based in Utah and are characterized by their preference to be set apart from the rest of the community, apparent in their views, which were antebellum in the time the religion was born.