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35 Cards in this Set

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Indentured Servants
People who promised their lives as servants in order to get to the colonies. The servants, who were usually white, worked for a certain amount of time so to pay off their debt. This practice led to social tensions and eventually was replaced by race slavery.
Headright system
System enacted first in Virginia then in Baltimore to attract people to the sparsely populated colonies. The system worked by granting large amount of land to anyone who brought over a certain amount of colonists. In Baltimore, anyone bringing five adults at their own expense would receive two thousand acres.
The group of supporters of Charles I in the English Civil War which lasted from 1642-1648. The term Cavalier continued to be used to mean any supporter of the British crown, especially Americans who were British sympathizers during the American Revolution.
Bacon's Rebellion
Colonial rebellion against the governor of Virginia in 1676. The uprising. protesting Governor Berkeley’s neglect, calls for a stronger military presence in the frontier to end problems caused by Indian hostility. This demonstrated the problems associated with former indentured servants.
Religion based upon predestination in which good conduct was encouraged but would not influence salvation. The Puritan colonies were based on this doctrine.
Mayflower Compact
Agreement made by the Pilgrims in 1620 when they landed at Plymouth. The compact created the Plymouth colony and made a civil government under James I based on the will of the colonists. This was important in the early organization and success of the colony.
William Bradford
The second governor of the Plymouth colony in Massachusetts, he was elected over John Carver in 1621 and was reelected thirty times. He was important in the organization and success of the colony and kept a history of the development of the Plymouth colony that was published in 1856.
The original group of puritan separatists that fled religious persecution in England and found refuge in what is now Massachusetts. They sailed across the Atlantic and reached America in 1620 where they founded the Plymouth colony and organized a government based on the Mayflower compact.
The movement aimed at purifying the church of corruption rather than separating from this church. Seeking religious freedom was a strong motivation for colonies in America while still maintaining loyalty to the crown.
City Upon a Hill
Name given to the Puritan society that was to be created in the New World. The leader of the Puritan migration, John Winthrop planned to create a utopian society based on Puritanism that would have no class distinction and would stress the importance of community and church. The society was to be an example to all the world of what could be achieved. It was anticipated that once the world saw this great city it would follow it example.
John Winthrop
The first governor and one of the founders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and a member of the Massachusetts Bay Company. He played a key role in the puritan migration and intended to create a utopian society in America. He was elected governor twelve times and pursued a conservative religious and governmental policy.
Anne Hutchison
She was banished to Rhode Island in 1637 for her belief in antinomianism and her insistence on salvation by faith and not works.
Meaning "against the law," this was a centuries-old heresy whose basic tenet held that Christians were not bound by traditional moral law, particularly that of the Old Testament. Instead, man could be guided by an inner light that would reveal the proper forms of conduct.
Roger Williams
Early colonial clergyman who founded the religiously tolerant colony of Rhode Island in 1636. He was banished from Massachusetts for his belief in religious freedom, he established a colony at Providence in 1636 that tolerated all dissenters and was in good relations with the Natives.
Lord Baltimore
Founder of Maryland who, in 1632, received a charter from King Charles I for a tract of land to the northeast of the colony of Virginia. It comprised the present-day states of Maryland and Delaware.
Maryland Act of Toleration
Act that resulted when the Catholics began feeling threatened by the overwhelming Protestant population. This was passed in 1649 so all types of Christians could have equal political rights. Along with this equality Lord Calvert allowed a representative assembly for the Catholics.
French who became refugees after the Edict of Nantes was revoked.
The practice of passing on land to a son, usually the eldest, when no will was left for the land. This practice came over with the colonists and was introduced into common law.
Willaim Penn
Pennsylvania was founded as a refuge for Quakers in 1681 as the “Holy Experiment.” While also searching for profit, he created a tolerant colony that was friendly towards the Indians.
Religious movement founded in 1600 by a belief that divine revelation is immediate and individual and that all persons may perceive the word of God in their soul. They rejected a formal creed and regarded every participant as a potential vessel for the word of God. In the Americas, they were based in Pennsylvania.
Stono Rebellion
Slave uprising in South Carolina in 1739, in which twenty slaves robbed guns and ammunition along with killing civilians. Officials suppressed the rebellion and stopped any more chaos and damage. It was a significant encounter because it caused white apprehension and led to a new slave code.
Jonathan Edwards
: His fire and brimstone sermons on “Justification by Faith Alone” gave rise to a revival in the Connecticut River valley in 1734, and in the 1740s he was also influential in the Great Awakening. A staunch Calvinist, he emphasized original sin, predestination, and the need for conversion.
George Whitefield
He preached with a Calvinist theology. He was known for his powerful voice and his ability to appeal to the emotions of a crowd, and unlike most preachers of his time spoke extemporaneously, rather than reading his sermon from notes.
Old Lights
Calvinist followers who rejected the Great Awakening with its emotional enthusiasm.
New Lights
Calvinist followers who embraced the emotional enthusiasm of the Great Awakening.
European intellectual movement of the 17th–18th century in which ideas concerning God, reason, nature, and man were blended into a worldview that inspired revolutionary developments in art, philosophy, and politics. Some beliefs brought to the forefront were the laws of nature, optimism, confidence in human reason, and deism.
John Peter Zenger
Trial involving the founder of the New York Weekly Journal , who received money from influential town members. So when he published articles by his contributors that criticized Colonial government he was arrested and put on trial. He was announced not guilty, his success paving the way for freedom of the press.
Economic policy prevailing in Europe during the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries under which governmental control was exercised over industry and trade in accordance with the theory that national strength is increased by a majority of exports over imports. The colonies adopted mercantilism as business in which the mother country could benefit.
Proprietary Colony
The crown gives land to an individual or family who then populates and rules the area.
Charter Colony
The crown issues charters to Joint Stock Companies who then settle and administer the area for a profit.
Royal Colony
The area is under control of the crown. All American settlements reverted to this structure by the pre revolutionary period.
Covenant Colony
Settlement created and administered by the settlers.
Navigation Acts
Britain enacted a series of laws which defined the colonies as suppliers of raw materials and markets for English manufactures. This enforced the idea of mercantilism.
Salutary Neglect
Any colonial laws (such as the Navigation Acts) deemed contrary to good business practices were to be ignored and not enforced.
The Great Awakening
A religious revival swept the country between 1730 and 1780. A sort of American reformation against the laxity, decadence, and officialism of established Protestantism.