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54 Cards in this Set

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Mayflower Compact
The first agreement for self-government in America. Signed by the men on the Mayflower. Set up a government for the Plymouth colony
William Bradford
Pilgrim.
Second Governor of Plymouth Colony.
Developed private land ownership.
Helped colonists get out of debt.
Pilgrims and Puritans Contrasted
Pilgrims = Separatists
Pilgrims believed the Church of England couldnt be reformed.
Pilgrims settled in Plymouth.
Puritans = non-Separatists
Puritans wished to adopt reforms to purify the Church of England.
Puritans settled in Massacusetts Bay
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Colony Puritans settled in.
Colony established political freedom and a representative government.
Puritan Migration
When Puritans migrated from England to America in 1630-1640s.
Population of Massachusetts Bay Colony grew to 10x its earlier population
Church of England
(Anglican Church)
National church of England.
Founded by King Henry 8th.
Included both Roman Catholic and Protestant ideas.
John Winthrop
First governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Puritan with strong beliefs.
Believed colony was best governed by a small group of leaders.
Helped organize the New England Confederation and served as its first president.
Separatists/Non-Separatists
Separatists believed the Church of England could not be reformed.
Non-Separatists believed the church could be purified.
Calvinism
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin.
Emphasized strong moral code and believed in predestination.
Congregational Church (Cambridge Platform)
Founded by Separatists who felt that the Church of England retained too many Roman Catholic beliefs/practices.
Pilgrims were members of Congregational Church
Anne Hutchinson
Thought God communicated directly with individuals rather than through church elders.
Her followers founded New Hampshire.
Roger Williams (Rhode Island)
Founded Rhode Island.
Rhode Island was the only colony at the time to offer religious freedom
Contrast Puritan colonies with others
Puritan colonies were self-governed.
Only members of the congregation and were full church members could vote/hold public office.
Other colonies had different styles of gov. and different beliefs.
Covenant Theology
Puritan Teachings emphasized the biblical covenants.
Voting grated to church members
Massachusetts general court passed an act to limit voting rights to church members (1631)
Half-Way Covenant
Applied to those members of the Puritan colonies who were the children of church members, but who hadn't achieved grace themselves.
Covenant allowed them to participate in church affairs.
Brattle Street Church
Founded by Thomas Brattle.
Didnt require people to prove they achieved grace in order to become full church members.
Thomas Hooker
One of the founders of Hartford.
"The Father of American Democracy"
Believed people have a right to choose their magistrates.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
Set up a unified government for the towns of the Connecticut area.
First constitution written in America.
Massachusetts School Law
First public education legislation in America
Anne Hutchinson
Thought God communicated directly with individuals rather than through church elders.
Her followers founded New Hampshire.
Roger Williams (Rhode Island)
Founded Rhode Island.
Rhode Island was the only colony at the time to offer religious freedom
Contrast Puritan colonies with others
Puritan colonies were self-governed.
Only members of the congregation and were full church members could vote/hold public office.
Other colonies had different styles of gov. and different beliefs.
Covenant Theology
Puritan Teachings emphasized the biblical covenants.
Voting grated to church members
Massachusetts general court passed an act to limit voting rights to church members (1631)
Half-Way Covenant
Applied to those members of the Puritan colonies who were the children of church members, but who hadn't achieved grace themselves.
Covenant allowed them to participate in church affairs.
Brattle Street Church
Founded by Thomas Brattle.
Didnt require people to prove they achieved grace in order to become full church members.
Thomas Hooker
One of the founders of Hartford.
"The Father of American Democracy"
Believed people have a right to choose their magistrates.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
Set up a unified government for the towns of the Connecticut area.
First constitution written in America.
Massachusetts School Law
First public education legislation in America
Harvard Founded
1636
Founded by a grant form the Massachusetts general court. Followed Puritan
beliefs.
New England Confederation
Formed to provide for the defense of the four New England colonies, and also
acted as a court in disputes between colonies.
King Philip's War
1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the
Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the
Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The
colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional
Indian lands for expansion.
Dominion of New England
1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island,
New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor
(Andros).
Joint Stock Company
A company made up of a group of shareholders.
Virginia:
purpose, problems, failures, successes
Formed by the Virginia Company as a profit earning venture.
Starvation was a major problem.
Virginia Company went bankrupt and the colony went to the crown.
Virginia didnt become successful until the discovery of tobacco.
Headright System
Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to
colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia
Company to attract more colonists.
John Smith
Helped found and govern Jamestown.
John Rolfe/tobacco
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He
discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export.
Slavery Begins
1619
First African Slaves arrive in the Virginia Colony
House of Burgesses
1619
Virginia house of burgesses formed.
first legislative body in colonial America.
Cavaliers
Troops loyal to Charles II in the English Civil War.
Opponents were Roundheads, loyal to Oliver Cromwell/Parliament.
Georgia:
reasons, successes
1733
Military style colony.
Served as haven for the poor, criminals, persecuted Protestants
James Oglethorpe
Founder and governor of Georgia colony.
Slaves, alchohol, Catholicism were forbidden in his colony.
Colonist dissatisfaction caused the colony to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.
Carolinas
1665
Southern region grew rich because of the sugar.
Northern region was poor because it only had farmers.
Colony was eventually split.
John Locke/Fundamental Constitution
Wrote the Fundamental Constitution for the Carolinas.
It was never put into effect.
Constitution wouldve set up a government headed by aristocracy which owned most of the land.
Charleston
1690
First permanent settlement of the Carolinas.
Most of the population were Huguenot
Staple Crops in the South
Tobacco, Rice, Indigo
Pennsylvania/William Penn
1681
Haven for Quakers.
Allowed religious freedom.
Allowed anyone to emigrate to Pennsylvania.
Holy Experiment
William Penn's term for the government of Pennsylvania, which was supposed to serve everyone/provide freedom for all.
Frame of Government
1701
Charter of Liberties set up the government of the Pennsylvania colony.
Established representative government and allowed counties to form their own colonies.
New York; Dutch, 1664 English
Belonged to Dutch, but because the land was given to the Duke of York in 1664, the English got it.
Patron System
Patronships were offered to individuals who managed to build a settlement for at least 50 people within 4 years.
Peter Stuyvesant
Governor of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam.
Hated by colonists.
Surrendered the colony to the English in 1664.