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69 Cards in this Set

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Where did the French settle?
Along the St. Lawrence River
1st successful English settlement in N. America for England
Jamestown, VA (1607)
Why was Maryland established?
As a refuge for English Catholics
Why was Rhode Island established?
To practice religious freedom due to disagreement with the Massachusetts government.
What was the first religious group to settle in the Americas?
Pilgrims
Which section of the colonies had higher life expectancies and closer families?
New England
What was an indentured servant?
person who works under contract for 4-7 years in exchange for food, shelter, and voyage to the NW
Headright system
colonists get 50 acres for every immigrant's passage paid for
Mayflower Compact
social contract between colonies and the king that established a civil government in America
2 groups of 1st Great Awakening
Methodists & Baptists
Importance of 1st Great Awakening
- religious revival
- emphasized individual and spiritual experience
-tolerant of other denominations
- new churches w/o ties to state
Leaders of 1st Great Awakening
Jonathan Edwards & George Whitefield
What was the Enlightment?
Applied scientific method of logic and reason to society
New lights
Methodists & Baptist
Old lights
Protestant & Puritan
Describe triangle trade
Raw materials from New England goes to England, manufactured goods from England go to Africa. Slaves from Africa go to West Indies, molasses from West Indies go to colonies to be processed into rum to be shipped to England. In return, the Americas get manufactured goods from England.
Middle passage
Transportation of the African people from Africa to the New World part of the Atlantic slave trade and was the middle portion of the triangular trade voyage
Mercantilism
Colonies would provide the mother country with raw goods in exchange for finished products and a market
French & Indian War
Britain vs France and France loses Canada, Mississippi, and W. Indies to N. America
What was the Proclamation of 1763? Why did it make colonists angry?
forbid settlers to expand past Appalachian mts and b/c colonists already had claims in the west
What was the first direct tax on colonists?
(1765) stamp act- tax on all printed docs
What event caused the Coercive (Intolerable) Acts?
(1773) Boston Tea Party
What did the Boston Massacre lead to?
Administration of Justice Act- english officers had right to be tried in England
Name 3 of the Coercive (Intolerable) Acts and what they did
■ Boston Port Act - closed the Boston Port
■ Admin of Justice Act- royal officers have right to be tried in another colony or British court
■ Quartering Act - colonists had to provide housing for British troops
Non importation agreement
est. to hurt Britain's economy for creating the stamp act
Date and ideas of Dec of Independence?
July 4, 1776 and ideas come from John Locke
Why is James Madison considered the main writer of the Constitution?
Because he took notes and provided the Bill of Rights
Who supported the constitution the most?
federalists
Why was Saratoga a turning point in the war?
Led to an open alliance between Americans and France
When did the American Revolution end...?
1781- Yorktown
Shay's Rebellion
(1787) farmer uprising led by Daniel Shay, led to criticism of Articles of Confederation
Hamilton's 4 reports? Which one was not passed?
Funding the debt
National Bank
Mint/currency
Manufacturing (not passed)
Weaknesses of Articles of Confederation
could not tax & no standing army
What was the 3/5 Compromise?
When counting the census for the country and determining representation for each state, each slave would count for 3/5 of a white land-owning male.
New Jersey Plan
Paterson proposed a unicameral legislature (1 house) with equal representation
Virginia Plan
Madison proposed having a bicameral legislature (2 house) and each state would be represented by population
What was the Great Compromise?
Combination of VA & NJ plan. called for bicameral legislature with lower house being represented based on population and 3/5 policy. Upper house has equal representation of 2 members per state (Senate)
Who wrote the Federalist papers?
Madison, Hamilton, Jay
XYZ affair
French officials demand bribe from US diplomats
Alien & Sedition Acts
used against immigrants & democratic republicans, power to imprison/deport foreigners and prosecute critics of gov
Date & who purchased Lousiana territory. Why is it ironic?
(1803) Livingston & Monroe purchased Louisiana territory. Ironic b/c Jefferson is a strict constitutionalist but the louisiana purchase was considered almost unconstitutional
1820 Missouri Compromise
1) Maine would be admitted as a free state
2) Missouri admitted as a slave stat
3) no slavery in Lousiana territory north of 36 30
Monroe Doctrine
1) non-colonization- Europe cannot colonize on American continent
2) isolation- US will not intervene in european affairs
3) non-intervention- no euro interference in US affairs
Who is Eli Whitney?
invented cotton gin so short staple cotton could be mass produced, leading to an increase of slavery in the south
What did the 2nd Great awakening preach?
actions matter and salvation can be achieved through faith and good works
2 new groups to come out of 2nd Great Awakening
Mormons (largest grp), Shakers, North American Phalanx
name 3 reforms
Abolition, temperance, women's rights
Who is Horace Mann?
Found the educatoion reform
Who is Dorothea Dix?
Found penal reforms
What is Manifest Destiny?
US has God given right to expand westward
54-40 of Fight
fight over Oregon territory between Britain & US
Mexican American War (result of it)
1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo- America receives AZ, NV, UT, CO, CA, NM and rio grande river becomes TX border
Compromise of 1850
Created by Clay, Calhoun, & Webster.
1) CA is a free state.
2) popular sovereignty in Mexican territories
3) stronger fugitive slave law
4) no slave trade in district of Columbia
popular sovereignty
people of each territory decide its slavery status
leaders of Transcendentalism
Emerson & Thoreau advocated to reconnect with nature
Which act allowed for popular sovereignty among territories?
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
Immigration
Germans settle in midwest and irish settle in NE cities
Dred Scott v Sanford
(1857) slaves are property and have no right to sue, and Missouri compromise is unconstitutional
Marbury v Madison
(1803) established judicial review- supreme court can declare an act of congress unconstitutional
McCullough v Maryland
(1819) est. federal supremacy- federal rules over state
Gibbons v Ogden
1824- strengthened congress' power on regulating interstate commerce
Who ruled the many court cases?
John Marshall
adv and disadv of North in civil war
good- more manpower and better transportation
bad- foreign territory and less soldiers trained
adv and disadv of South in civil war
good- homefront adv and more motivatiion
bad- no money and no transportation
Emancipation Proclamation
frees slaves in confederate states but it was designed to keep Britain &France out of the war
famous book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Components of North's Anaconda Plan
1) blockade Southern ports
2) control Mississippi R.
3) capture Richmond
Bessemer
Bessemer process mass produced steel
Edison
invented lightbulb