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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Commission Plan
This form of government replaced the traditional mayor/council version in several cities. It began in Texas when progressives removed the mayor and council, replacing them with five elected commissioners. They were experts in rebuilding the ruined city, which is what they were elected to do.
City manager plan
This version of city government in which the city is run in a businesslike manner. The mayor and the council have a subordinate role to a businessman whom they hire. This system relies on experts in the field of business.
Payne-Aldrich Tariff, 1909
This tariff was initially intended to lower several other tariffs, but after numerous compromises in the Senate it became a protective measure.
Ballinger-Pinchot Affair
This controversy hurt the Taft administration as the conservationists and the preservationists squared off.
This was the nickname for a small group of reformist Republicans. The separation between progressive and conservative republicans was caused by this group.
Old Guard
The group of conservative republicans were led by Uncle Joe Cannon who was the Speaker of the House. He was the enemy of progressive republicans and democrats.
Dollar Diplomacy
: President Taft sought to avoid military confrontation by using money to increase foreign interest in the US. He planned to donate large sums of money to generate economic, social, and political stability in Latin America rather than sending the military to force stability. Most of the money was stolen by corrupt government officials.
Bull Moose Party
This party, formally known as the Progressive Party, was created by Theodore Roosevelt after his split with Taft. They advocated primary elections, woman suffrage, and prohibition of child labor. They outpolled the Republicans but lost to the Democrats.
New Freedom
The Democrats united with the Progressives, running under a compromise platform. Wilson’s campaign was concerned with progressive programs similar to both parties. He did not, however, support trustbusting in the same way that Roosevelt did.
New Nationalism
In the election of 1912 Roosevelt was nominated under this platform which followed the previous trustbusting and regulation trend as well as alleviating many common progressive concerns such as child labor, woman’s suffrage, and minimum wages. This platform was essentially identical with many of the progressive reforms later passed under Wilson.
Election of 1912
This election was very interesting for most Americans since there were 4 active political parties. Roosevelt tried to run with the Republican Party, but Taft was chosen. He left and created the Progressive Party. Wilson ran with the Democratic Party. Debs continued to run on the Socialist platform. All of the platforms dealt primarily with economic reform, indicating the change that Americans wanted. Debs even received 900,000 votes.
Federal Reserve Act
This was a compromise designed to stabilize the currency in the US. It split the US into 12 regions with one Federal bank in each region. Commercial banks bought stock from this bank.
Underwood-Simmons Tariff
This reduced the tariffs from the Payne-Aldrich Tariff to about 29%. It included a graduated income tax, made legal by the sixteenth amendment to the Constitution, to correct for this monetary loss.
Clayton Antitrust Act
This was designed to clarify the Sherman Antitrust Act in terms of new economic issues that had arisen. Practices such as local price-cutting and price discrimination were made illegal. The right of unions to strike, boycott, and picket was also confirmed.
Louis Brandeis
He was the first Jewish person nominated to the Supreme Court in 1916, in Muller v. Oregon, his brief provided evidence as to why women need limited work hours. This represented the Court’s adapting to the new, changing industrial society.
Adamson Act, 1916
This was a compromise that avoided a railroad strike. It set an eight hour day for interstate railroad workers with a salary of one and a half for overtime work.
The British luxury liner that was sunk by a German U Boat in 1915. 1198 were killed including 128 Americans.
Sussex Pledge
In 1916, Germans sunk a French cruise ship, then promised to stop unrestricted submarine warfare.
Zimmermann Note
This was a message intercepted by British intelligence from Germany to Mexico in 1917 proposing that in the event of a German war with the United states, Mexico should attack the US. It would be a Mexican opportunity to retake the Mexican Cession.
"Peace without victory"
In 1916 President Wilson formed this plan. His words were a call to the European nations to stop the conflict based on a balance of power and to form a peace in which nations together would keep the peace. Wilson foresaw the vengeful atmosphere that would follow a prolonged war.
Bernard Baruch
He was a Wall Street broker before being chosen by President Wilson in 1918 to head the War Industries Board. This board controlled raw materials, production, prices, and labor relations.
George Creel
He headed the Committee on Public Information, formed in 1917. The CPI was a propaganda committee that built support for the war effort in Europe among Americans. It depicted Germans and other enemies on bad terms, and served to censor the press. Anything German was frowned upon.
Herbert Hoover
The Food Administration was created in 1917 as part of the war effort, and a response to the poor harvests of 1916 and 1917. Headed by this man, it set prices for agricultural goods high to encourage the production of agricultural products. It encouraged conservation with such days as "meatless Tuesdays."
Espionage and Sedition Acts
They enacted fines and imprisonment for false statements, inciting rebellion, or obstructing recruitment or the draft. Also newspapers which opposed the government could be banned from the U.S. postal service. They also made illegal any criticism of the government. It was poorly applied and used to trample civil liberties during the war hysteria as in the example of the imprisonment of Eugene Debs.
Eddie Rickenbacker
He was an American Aviator during WWI. During the war, he served in the U.S. Air Service as commander of the 94th Aero Pursuit Squadron. Shooting down 22 planes, he was America’s leading pilot. He received the Distinguished Service Cross as well as the Congressional Medal of Honor.
Fourteen Points
They were Wilson’s proposals and beliefs for a post-war world order. They dealt with the things that led to the first World War. For example, the first points called for open treaties, freedom of the seas, arms reduction and free trade. The other points dealt with self determination and finally a general association of nations, the League of Nations.
League of Nations
This organization was promoted by Wilson in his Fourteen Points. The US never joined because of controversy over Article 10 that took away the United States’s freedom of determination in world affairs.