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33 Cards in this Set

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Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
In 1901, the United States planned to construct the Panama Canal. The U.S. Secretary of State and the British Ambassador agreed on a new agreement that would drop England’s claim on the canal.In 1901, the United States planned to construct the Panama Canal. The U.S. Secretary of State and the British Ambassador agreed on a new agreement that would drop England’s claim on the canal.
Roosevelt Corollary
This doctrine justified U.S. intervention in the affairs of Latin American nations if their weakness or wrongdoing warranted such action. An example of this interference was the American intervention in Haiti when it was not wanted. The document was primarily a pass for the US to interfere with other countries’ business when it was not wanted nor needed.
Elihu Root
As secretary of war in the cabinets of William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt, he reorganized the army and established the Army War College. As Roosevelt's secretary of state from 1905 to 1909, he reformed the consular service, improving US relations with Latin America, and sponsoring a series of arbitration treaties.
Pancho Villa
During the political turmoil of Mexico in 1916, he murdered 16 Americans, then burned down Columbus in New Mexico. With the U.S. outraged, General John J. Pershing was sent with 12,000 troops to catch him with no avail. Massive US response angered some Mexicans and led to hostilities.
Muckrakers
Those American writers who early in the 20th century wrote both fiction and nonfiction to expose corruption in business and politics. It was a term first used by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1906.
Jacob Riis
A journalist, photographer, and reformer, Jacob August Riis publicized the plight of immigrants in New York City slum tenements. His photographs, articles, and books focused on the squalid living conditions of the city's poor and spurred legislation to improve those conditions.
Lincoln Steffens
An eminent American reformer and journalist, he was a leader of the muckrakers. He wrote a series of articles that documented corruption in American cities, asserting that some cities were run by political bosses who remained in power with the help of powerful businessmen.
Frank Norris
He was a noted pioneer of naturalism in literature. His novels portray the demoralizing effects of modern technology on human fate. His best-known works, The Octopus (1901) and The Pit (1903), attacked the railroad and wheat industries in the United States.
Ida Tarbell
As a Pennsylvania journalist, editor, and biographer, she became famous as a muckraker through her well-documented articles on political and corporate corruption in McClure's Magazine and American Magazine. Her favorite target was John D. Rockefeller.
John Dewey
His ideas of progressive education, described in The School and Society, greatly affected educational techniques. He founded the Laboratory School, a school in which students learned of life by actively doing things rather than following a strict curriculum.
Initiative
This allowed voters to enact laws directly.
Referendum
This allowed voters to express their opinions of specific issues through the ballot box.
Recall
Through this, voters were able to directly remove public officials from office.
Direct primary
It originated in Wisconsin (1903) and rapidly spread throughout the rest of the United States. It provided that the members, not the leadership, of each party nominate the party’s nominees for public office.
Australian ballot
By 1910 all states had replaced the corrupt system of preprinted ballots with a new secret ballot, begun in Australia, which was much more difficult to rig.
Triangle Shirtwaist Co. fire
This accident killed 141 workers. It prodded the concerns of many progressive reformers since the workers, locked in the factory and unable to escape, were killed by brutal working conditions. These concerns raised new questions of human and immigrant rights and of existing labor laws.
Square Deal
: TR’s progressive concept denounced special treatment for the large capitalists and is the essential element to his trustbusting attitude. This deal embodied the belief that all corporations must serve the general public good
Forest Reserve Act, 1891
This strongly supported by Roosevelt and Pinchot, created a system of national forests, consisting of approximately 200 million acres, which were protected from the short-sighted greed Roosevelt saw in many large companies.
Newlands Reclamation Act, 1902
Roosevelt drafted this when he noticed that decades of rapid industrial growth had destroyed much of the limited natural resources of the land. It insured that all natural resources would be managed by experts.
Anthracite coal strike, 1902
This was the first strike in which the government became involved but did not side with the management. Roosevelt instead mediated a series of negotiations between the strikers and the owners over issues of wages, safety conditions, and union recognition.
Elkins Act, 1903
This strengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission by stiffening penalties against secret railroad rebates to favored shippers.
Hepburn Act, 1906
It allowed the ICC to set freight rates and, in an attempt to reduce the corruption in the railroad industry, to require a uniform system of accounting by regulated transportation companies.
Mann-Elkins Act, 1910
This further extended the regulatory ability of the ICC. It allowed them to regulate cable and wireless companies dealing with telephone and telegraph lines.
Northern Securities Co
This was the first company Roosevelt filed suit against in his trustbusting stage. It was a large holding company formed by railroad and banking interests. In 1902 Roosevelt "trustbusted" them by claiming they violated the Sherman Anti-Trust Act in holding money against the public good. The company was dissolved.
Meat Inspection Act
This was passed by Roosevelt as a strong response to Sinclair's book describing the conditions of food as well as wartime scandals in 1898 concerning spoiled canned meats. It created strict sanitary requirements for meat, began a quality rating system, and provisioned for a federal department to inspect meat.
W.E.B. DuBois
For more than 50 years he, a black editor, historian, and sociologist, was a leader of the civil rights movement in the United States. Members of the Niagra group joined with concerned liberal and radical whites to organize the NAACP in 1909.
Upton Sinclair
He was an American writer and reformer who wrote The Jungle. This book exposed the unsanitary working conditions in the stockyards of Chicago, eventually leading to an investigation of both working conditions and the conditions of food. It eventually led to the enactment of the Pure Food Act.
Pure Food and Drug Act
This gave consumers protection from dangerous and impure foods. All products must be clearly labeled and must explain a product which cannot be seen or judged by a consumer. This act solved problems concerning fraudulently labeled items.
Election of 1908
The Republican platform consisted of Taft and Sherman. They ran for continued anti-trust enforcement, conservation, and increased international trade. William Jennings Bryan ran for the Democratic Party on a similar anti-trust platform. The Socialist Party was represented by Eugene Debs. Taft easily won.
Wisconsin Idea
La Follette adopted a direct primary system, began to regulate the railroads in his state, increased corporate taxes, and passed other progressive reform legislation. The reliance on experts, especially from the university, was key to his reform.
Robert M. La Follette
He took the reform movement, previously only found at the municipal level, to new heights, the state.
Jane Addams
She was a prominent social reformer in the US and Europe. In 1889 she created Hull House in Chicago, a settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It also tried to teach immigrants English customs.
Florence Kelley
She was largely responsible for the regulation of child labor. She saw its evils as a resident in Hull House for several years.