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53 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR)
President, 1933-1945
Democrat
1921, age 39, struck with polio
1928 Governor NY
President during Great Depression and World War II
Elected 4 times
Liberal reformer—
NEW DEAL
Late ’30s urges nation to recognize threat posed by fascism
Tough sell—public opposed to war
Norman Rockwell (1894-1978)
Popular Artist/Illustrator
Produced 322 Covers for The Saturday Evening Post (1920s-1960s)
“I paint life as I would like it to be.”
4 paintings:
freedom of speech, freedom of warship, freedom from want, freedom from fear
DOUBLE V CAMPAIGN
Blacks call for victory abroad against fascism and victory at home against discrimination and racism
March on Washington Movement
A. Philip Randolph, president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters threatens massive march on D.C.
March to pressure FDR to end discrimination in defense jobs and the “right to fight” in the military
1941: FDR signs Exec. Order 8802 to set up Fair Employment Practices Committee (March cancelled)
Detroit Race Riot, 1943
6000 Federal troops sent to restore order
35 people killed (26 blacks, 9 whites)
250 racial conflicts across U.S. that summer
Willow Run
Covers sixty-seven acres and main building is one-mile long.
40,000 workers around the clock.
Workers during war asked to sign no-strike pledges while wage increases limited to cost-of-living increases.
14,000 wartime strikes despite pledge. Don’t want to be branded traitors but also not willing to back down.
John L. Lewis
President of United Mine Workers
Attacked in media for supporting some strikes by miners
Workers support war but frustrated by wage controls as industry makes record profits
Fascism
From Italian “fascio” (“union” or “league”) and Latin “faces” (rods wrapped around axe—ancient Roman symbol of authority)
Super nationalism (loyalty to nation or homeland prized as ultimate loyalty)
Aggressive, anti-democratic, militarism
Dictatorial gov’t
Often bases rule on claims of racial purity and superiority
Bataan Death March
Japanese seize Manila in Jan. 1942
U.S. and Filipino troops withdraw to Bataan Bataan Peninsula.
After months of fighting 12,000 Amer-
Japanese order forced march of 65 miles to POW camp. Some 8000 prisoners are clubbed, shot, or starved to death.
U.S. wartime culture cast Japanese cast as uniformly fanatical and brutal.
General Douglas MacArthur
MacArthur ordered to leave Philippines with U.S. defeat in 1942.
“Dougout Doug?”
“I shall return”
Photo op: Back to the Philippines, wading ashore in 1944.
D-Day, June 6, 1944
Largest amphibious assault in history
Establishes western front (long called for by Soviet Union)
Across English Channel to Normandy
176,000 men on 4,000 landing craft
Hitler expected attack at Calais
1 million Allied troops land by end of June
The Holocaust
Mobile Killing Units (Einstatzgruppen) slaughter 1.5 million Jews beginning in 1939
Concentration camps built for slave labor and systematic extermination
12,000 people per day gassed to death at Auschwitz
1/3 of world’s Jewish population killed
Kurt Vonnegut, novelist
Slaughterhouse-Five (1969)
“All this happened, more or less. The war parts anyway, are pretty much true. One guy I knew really was shot in Dresden for taking a teapot that wasn’t his.”
Firebombing of Japan, 1945
Incendiary Bombs—early napalm
Justification—destroy defense industries, break morale
March-Aug: 100 cities firebombed
500,000 civilians killed
Harry S. Truman
First term Sen. from Missouri--replaced VP Wallace in 1944
President, April, 1945—Jan. 1953
FDR excluded him from foreign policy and knowledge of Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
Code name of secret gov’t project to build nuclear weapons
Begun in response to fear that Germany was developing nuclear weapon
Major facilities in Oak Ridge, TN, Hanford Washington, and Los Alamos, NM
130,000 people working
2 billion dollars
Hiroshima, Aug. 6, 1945
Enola Gay—B-29
“Little Boy” (the bomb)
Population of Hiroshima: 350,000
90,000 killed immediately, perhaps 50,000 more from radiation
Truman Doctrine (1947)
Truman says U.S. must “support free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressure…If we do not accept our responsibility …to people. ..who are democracies or want to be, who do not want to be smothered by communism…[then God help us; God help the world.”
Korean War, 1950-53
First major test of containment policy
Was Korea vital to our security? Mixed
signals by Truman administration
Inconsistent Objectives: Containment to
“Roll-back” to Containment
Stalemate
Frustration: no substitute for victory?
Korea
Japanese Colony: 1910-1945
When Allies defeat Japan, USSR moves into north of Korea, U.S. into the south
Two powers agree to occupy North and South divided by 38th parallel
U.S. installs right-wing dictator: Syngman Rhee
Soviets install Communist Kim Il Sung
Syngman Rhee, 1875-1965
Time Magazine cover, March 9, 1953
“Deep are the roots of freedom”
During Cold War, even dictatorial allies like Rhee are routinely depicted in media as champions of freedom.
Civil Rights (’41-’54): Main Points
Civil Rights activism has long history—doesn’t begin with Martin Luther King
Important changes not handed down from on high: “We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed.” M.L. King (1963)
Great Migration, 1910-1960
Movement of African Americans from South to North: Largest internal mass migration in U.S. history.
1910: 90 percent of African Americans live in South
1960: 50 percent live in South
A. Philip Randolph
President of Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
Organizes March on Washington Movement, 1941
FDR calls for end to discrimination in defense industry
Jackie Robinson
UCLA—5 sports
Army Lt. court-martialed in ’44 for not moving to back of bus at Fort Hood.
Acquited.
Plays in Negro Leagues before signed by Brooklyn Dodgers.
Breaks 55 year-old color line in 1947.
Brooklyn Dodgers
Manager Branch Rickey
Moved partly by personal sense of justice
Wants to win
Boost ticket sales
Asks Robinson—can you take it and not fight back?
Pee Wee Reese and Robinson
Death threats and taunts
But also support—black fans travel hundreds of miles
Celebration of Robinson’s “restraint”
Slow change--Red Sox last team to integrate—12 years later
Black “Clown” Teams
Barnstorming black team from Louisville
Wore face paint and grass skirts
Play-acted racist stereotypes
Indianapolis Clowns only clown team accepted in Negro Leagues
Thurgood Marshall (1908-1993)
Led NAACP legal battles against racial discrimination
Won 29 Supreme Court cases, including Brown v. Board of Ed.
Appointed to Supreme Court by Lyndon Johnson in 1967
Plessy v.Ferguson, 1896
Establishes “separate but equal” doctrine
that effectively legalizes racial segregation

NAACP files countless suits demonstrating
that facilities are not equal.

Brown v. Board of Education (1954) attacks
segregation itself as inherently unequal.
Brown v. Board of Education, 1954
Unanimous decision: “We believe” that separating students “solely because of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status in the community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way very unlikely ever to be undone.”
Segregation in public education found a violation of the 14th Amendment’s guarantee of equal protection under the law
Emmett Till, 15 years old
1955 trip from home in Chicago to Miss.
At country store he said “Hey Baby” to the white woman behind the counter.
For that he was lynched by the woman’s husband and brother-in-law
Rosa Parks, 1955
Arrested for refusing to move to the back of the bus.
Montgomery Alabama Bus Boycott, ’55-’56
Alger Hiss
1948: Accused of giving secret gov’t documents to Soviets in the 1930s.
Nixon leads HUAC investigation
Convicted of perjury in 1950
Claimed to be innocence
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
1950: Charged with espionage—atomic information to Soviets (linked to Klaus Fuchs who confessed and tried in Eng.—14 yrs)
1951: Rosenbergs convicted
1953: Executed
Senator Joe McCarthy
Republican Sen. from Wisc. (1946-1957)
First becomes household name in 1950 claiming communists in U.S. gov’t
Censored by Senate in 1954; dies in ‘57
McCarthyism Defined
To make wild charges without evidence
To smear targets with “guilt by association”
To use the “Big Lie”
To link all targets to a “conspiracy”
To wage a “witch hunt”
To bully and intimidate witnesses
To cultivate informers
To create rituals of confession and rehabilitation
J. Edgar Hoover
FBI Director, 1924-1972.
Misdeeds continue long after McCarthy
COINTELPRO
Campaign against Martin Luther King
Suburbanization
Postwar demand for houses—2 million couples living with relatives in 1948.
Suburbs grow 6x faster than cities in the 1950s—more than a million a year move to ‘burbs
13 million new homes in 1950s, 11 million built in suburbs
Suburbs—New Form of Racial Segregation
Federal Housing Authority maps every block based on credit rating. Black neighborhoods automatically given lowest rating—”redlining”
Many banks, realtors, and builders keep blacks out of suburbs
Racial Covenants—contractual promise not to sell to non-whites (Fosl, p. 136)
1960: No blacks among 82,000 in Levittown, New York
Lewis Mumford
Suburbs: “a multitude of uniform, unidentifiable houses, lined up inflexibly, at uniform distances, on uniform roads, in a treeless communal wasteland, inhabited by people of the same class, the same income, the same age group, witnessing the same television performances, eating the same tasteless pre-fabricated foods from the same freezers.”
Malvina Reynolds “Little Boxes” (1962)
poem written about the suburbs and how they're just little boxes in a row.
Betty Friedan
The Feminine Mystique (1963)—Fosl, p. 44
Idea that motherhood and homemaking was a woman’s only and highest calling created the “problem without a name”
Documents unhappiness of middle- class housewives
The Songs of Tom Lehrer (1953)
Harvard graduate student in Mathematics
Songs made fun of just about everything
“Be Prepared” on Boy Scouts
Never on Prime Time TV—but sold many albums
Mort Sahl
“Eisenhower says he’s for integration but gradually; Stevenson says he’s for integration but moderately. It should be possible to compromise between those extremes.”
Lenny Bruce
Stand-up comedian
Improvisational humor
Starting in ’61 arrested many times for obscenity
Died of drug overdose at 40 in 1966
Abstract Expressionism, 1945-1960
Extension of modernist challenge to idea that art should represent objective reality
Represent emotion, unconscious feelings, change, spontaneity
“Action Painting” prizes improvization (as does Jazz and Beat writing)
Global ambition—New York art capital of world—”New York School”
Beats
Origin unclear (Kerouac says it’s from the beatitudes—”blessed are the….”)
Media invents “beatniks”—stereotype of lazy guys beating bongos in their “pads”
Critique of American conformity, careerism, materialism, sexual and cultural conservatism
Celebration of spontaneity, transcendent spirituality, drugs as liberation, nakedness, outsiders, movement
Rock ‘n Roll
Editorial in Music Journal, 1956: Youth are “definitely influenced in their lawlessness by this throwback to jungle rhythms. Either it actually stirs them to orgies of sex and violence (as its model did for the savages themselves), or they use it as an excuse for the removal of inhibitions and the complete disregard of the conventions of decency.”
“IKE”
Supreme Commander--WWII
So popular both parties wanted him in ‘48
Champion of business—gov’t by rich white men (white house “stag” dinners)
“Fiscal Conservative” yet expanded social security (“Modern Republicanism”) and launched largest public works project in U.S. history—Interstate Highways
Hobbiest in the White House
Cold War Policy Consensus, 1948-1968
We must contain Communism globally
We must be #1 militarily—thus a permanent war economy
We must continue to build ever more nuclear weapons
The government has at least some responsibility for providing social safety net—social security
Faith in economic growth to solve most social problems limits reforms (such as nat’l health care)
Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh
Iranian Prime Minister from 1951-1953
Moves to nationalize
Iranian oil
CIA backs coup to overthrow him and install Shah Reza Pahlavi—rules until 1979
Oil concessions go to U.S. and Britain
President Jacobo Arbenz
Democratically elected president of Guatemala in 1951
Expropriates some land from United Fruit Company
D.C. says Soviet beach-head being est. in L.Am
Arbenz overthrown by CIA coup in 1954
Followed by 30 year civil war