Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/58

Click to flip

58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Fulgencio Batista
Cuban Dictator, 1934-1959
U.S.--backed
U.S. business dominates economy
Strong ties to mafia—Havana “The Latin Las Vegas”
Fidel Castro, 1926
Jesuit educated lawyer-activist
1953: Arrested for attack on army barracks
1955: Released.
1956-59: wages guerrilla war against Batista
He and Cuban Communist Party rule Cuba to the present
Che Guevara
Argentine doctor-revolutionary
In Mexico joins Castro and 78 others aboard the Granma to sail for Cuba with goal of overthrowing Batista (1956)
Only 12 survive to find cover in Sierra Maestra and organize guerrilla movement
Movement of “los barbudos” (the bearded ones) grows and Batista flees, Jan. 1, 1959.
Legendary guerrilla fighter—romantic image
Post-revolution signed death warrants of many political prisoners
Murdered in Bolivia, 1967
Ho Chi Minh
1930: Founder of Vietnamese Communist Party
1941: Founder of the Viet Minh (League for Vietnamese Independence). Communist-led but recruits widely
Leads uprising against France and Japanese during World War II
Declares independence on Sept. 2, 1945. American officers attend ceremony
Harry S. Truman
April/1945-Jan./1953
Truman Doctrine – Global “Containment” of Communism
Supports French in their war against the Viet Minh (’46-’54)
President Dwight D. Eisenhower
1953-1961
1954: Sends CIA and U.S. military to “save” Vietnam from Communism
Backs Ngo Dinh Diem to rule “South Vietnam”
President John F. Kennedy
1961-1963
Raises U.S. military in Vietnam from 700 to 15,000
Deceives public about “advisory” role of U.S. military
Authorizes overthrow of Ngo Dinh Diem
Viet Cong
pro-Communist guerrillas of South Vietnam.
North Vietnamese Army (NVA)
call themselves the People’s Army of Vietnam (PAVN)
ARVN
The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnamese military trained and financed by the U.S.)
Geneva Accords, 1954
Big powers, including USSR and China, push Viet Minh to accept temporary division of Vietnam
Fear U.S. intervention
Nationwide election promised for 1956
US/Diem cancel elections
Ngo Dinh Diem
President of South Vietnam, ’54-’63
Would not have been ruler without massive U.S. support
“Sink of swim with Ngo Dinh Diem”
U.S. backed coup kills Diem in 1963
Thich Quang Duc
Self-immolation
June 11, 1963
Photo an international symbol of opposition to U.S. policy in VN
“Let them burn” says Diem’s sister-in-law, Madame Nhu
Lyndon Baines Johnson
LBJ sworn in as president on Air Force One flying back to D.C. from Dallas.
Great Society Programs
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Medicare
Medicaid
Job Corps
Head Start
VISTA
Food Stamp program expanded
Immigration Reform Act
National Endowment for the Humanities and the Arts
Public Broadcasting System
Housing Act (aide for public housing)
Student loan programs
Clean Air and Water Acts
LBJ, Johns Hopkins University, April 7,1965
To help South Vietnam maintain independence
To prevent Communist aggression/expansion from spreading (domino theory)
To maintain American credibility (our “commitments” and “pledges”)
William C. Westmoreland
Commander of U.S. forces in VN, ’64-’68
LBJ brings him home to boost morale, emphasize progress
Claims U.S. has reached “cross-over point”
Light at end of tunnel
William Westmoreland
Commander of U.S. forces in VN, ’64-’68
Describes Tet Offensive as U.S. victory
Requests 200,000 more troops
“Westy” is removed from VN command
Ben Tre
Provincial Capital in Mekong Delta (35,000 population)
Overrun by Viet Cong regiment during Tet Offensive
U.S. bombs town to drive out Viet Cong
City destroyed, roughly 1000 civilians killed in air attacks
U.S. officer: “It became necessary to destroy the town to save it.”
Walter Cronkite (CBS Anchor)
“Most trusted man in America”
Reports from Vietnam during Tet Offensive
Says war is “bloody stalemate”
LBJ: “If I’ve lost Cronkite, I’ve lost Middle America.”
Eugene McCarthy
Senator (Minn. Democrat)
Antiwar candidate
Nearly defeats LBJ in NH primary, March
Success moves Robert Kennedy to join race, March 16
Robert Kennedy Killed
June 5: RFK shot minutes after victory speech following California primary
Blow to ’60s idealism
Can any real change come peacefully?
Advocates of peace gunned down
Nixon Elected
Republican Richard Nixon narrowly wins 1968 presidential election
Pledges to restore “law and order”
Promises an “honorable end” to war: “When the strongest nation in the world can be tied down for four years in a war in Vietnam with no end in sight, then it’s time for new leadership.”
Students for a Democratic Society
Founded in 1960
Port Huron Statement (1962): “Our work is guided by the sense that we may be the last generation in the experiment with living.”
Multi-issue group: poverty, racism, imperialism, alienation
“Participatory democracy”
Paul Potter, 17 April 1965 Washington Monument
President of SDS in ‘65
Grew up believing morality and democracy were guiding principles of U.S. foreign policy—war shows this to be an illusion
“The President says that we are defending freedom in Vietnam. Whose freedom? Not the freedom of the Vietnamese.”
Malcolm X (1925-1965)
Malcolm Little
’46-’52 imprisoned
Converts to Nation of Islam and changes “slave name”
Advocates black separatism, self-help, and self-defense
Black Nationalism
George Wallace
Lost to John Patterson, a strident segregationist, for Gov. of Alabama in 1958: “I was outniggered by John Patterson, I’ll tell you here and now, I will never be outniggered again.”
“I say segregation now, segregation tomorrow, and segregation forever” (after gubernatorial victory in 1962)
3rd Party Candidate (wins five states)
Attacks “pointy headed intellectuals,”
mothers on welfare “breeding children as a cash crop,” and all the left/liberal movements of the 1960s: “If any demonstrator ever lays down in front of my car, it will be the last car he will ever lay down in front of.”
Birmingham, Alabama
"Bombingham”: Blacks the victims of at least 20 bombings from 1957-63
The most segregated city in America (even kids’ book with black and white rabbits playing was banned)
Civil Rights demonstrations in 1963 met by police dogs and firehouses.
Black Panther Party For Self Defense
Founded 1966 in Oakland, CA by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale
Armed patrols to prevent police brutality
Call for self-defense over non-violent pacifism, black separatism over integration
Black America as internal colony requiring decolonization
Central target of FBI’s COINTELPRO
Cambodia
Had maintained neutrality from 1954-1970 under Prince Norodom Sihanouk
Bombing destabilizes Cambodia and helps small Communist movement (Khmer Rouge) recruit followers
1970 coup by Gen. Lon Nol makes new Cambodian gov’t
U.S. invades on ground in 1970
My Lai Massacre, 3/16/68
Massacre revealed after long cover-up
American unit kills 500 unarmed civilians
No hostile fire
Four hours, with breaks
Military cover-up
Is this war criminal?
Jackson State College
May 14, 1970
80 Miss. Highway patrolmen fire shotguns at women’s dormitory.
Two killed, nine wounded
Roots of 1960s and 1970s Women’s Movement
Women in labor movement (union membership from 800,000 to 3 million from 1941 to 1952). Labor activists win Equal Pay for Equal Work Bill--1963
Civil Rights Movement—both a training ground for women activists and reminder of their own second class status
Rejection of the “feminine mystique”—claim that roles of housewife and mother were the highest (and only) forms of “true” womanhood
Gloria Steinem
Grew up in Toledo, Ohio in the 1930s and ’40s.
Smith College ’56
Journalist and author
Founding editor of Ms. Magazine, 1972
Title VII
Women activists (including Congress-woman Martha Griffiths) pushed for inclusion of sex as category.
Actually put in bill by Chair of Rules Committee—VA segregationist Howard Smith as a tactic to kill bill.
Though it would give northerners a way to vote against it without seeming like racists.
National Organization of Women (NOW) Founded in 1966
“The purpose of NOW is to take action to bring women into full participation in the mainstream of American society now, exercising all the privileges and responsibilities thereof in truly equal partnership with men.”
Women’s Liberation Movement
Protest at 1968 “Miss America Pageant”
“Objectification”
“Freedom Trash Can” (girdles, wigs, false eyelashes)
Miss America is a “walking commercial,” “military death mascot,” “conformity is the key to the crown”
New York Radical Women: 1968 Protest of Miss America Pageant
“The Pageant contestants epitomize the roles we are all forced to play as women. . .to compete for male approval, enslaved by ludicrous ‘beauty’ standards we ourselves are conditioned to take seriously.”
“Racism with Roses: Since its inception in 1921, the Pageant has not had one Black finalist.”
Wilma Rudolph, 1940-1994
Winner of 3 Gold Medals—1960 Olympics
Childhood polio kept her from walking without a brace until age 12
TN segregated schools—Tennessee State—famous track program for women
Media and Women Athletes
Routinely question whether women athletes are sufficiently “feminine” or not
“In a field of female endeavor in which the greatest stars have often been characterized by overdeveloped muscles and underdeveloped glands, Wilma Rudolph has long, lissome legs and a pert charm.” Time Magazine, 1960
Title IX of Education Act, 1972
Outlawed sexual discrimination in schools that receive federal aid. (Virtually all schools affected)
At first the implications for sport ignored, and then evaded, but eventually had profound affect on increasing participation of girls and women in school sports programs. Teams and scholarships.
Billie Jean King
King—working-class CA background
Challenged elitism and sexism of prof. tennis.
Led fight to end gross disparities in prize money
Billy Jean King and Bobby Riggs
“Battle of the Sexes”—1973
Riggs, 55, former champion and self-described “male chauvinist pig”
King, 29, defeats him in Houston Astro-
dome—48 million TV viewers
Achievements of Women’s Movement
Economic: now see women in virtually every kind of job and level of authority
Political: No female president, but many gains at lower elected offices
Social: less rigid and confining definitions of “normal” gender roles
Law: Sanctions tougher on sexual assault, abuse, and harassment
“Pro-Choice” v. “Pro-Life”
Most in women’s movement advocate “reproductive rights,” including right to abortion (but extremely divisive issue)
Supreme Court sanctions in Roe V. Wade (1973)
Republicans embrace “social issues,” opposing abortion, laws against prayer in school, tolerance for drugs or crime (begins to draw working-class voters who had been “New Deal” Democrats)
Watergate—Main Points
Willingness to Commit Crimes to Silence Dissent and Maintain Power
Not just dirty tricks in an election year
Origins of Watergate date from beginning of Nixon presidency—in effort to attack and silence political opponents (especially the antiwar movement)
Daniel Ellsberg
“Hawk” turned “Dove”
Former defense analyst at RAND
Insider who risked imprisonment by giving “Pentagon Papers” to NY Times
Nixon orders “Plumbers” to go after Ellsberg
Ellsberg
Chile
Salvador Allende—socialist physician elected president in 1970
U.S. cuts aid, supports military coup. Allende overthrown and murdered. General Augusto Pinochet imposes repressive dictatorship.
“I don’t see why we need to stand by and watch a country go communist due to the irresponsibility of its people.” Henry Kissinger
1972 Election
Dirty Tricks—helped destroy candidacy of strongest opponent—Edmund Muskie—who dropped out
Break-in at Democratic Headquarters (Watergate)
Illegal demands for corporate campaign money. “It was shakedown.” George Steinbrenner
The “Tapes”
At key moment in Senate investigations, a minor official reveals that Nixon had tape-recorded Oval Office conversations
Had hoped tapes would be used by historians to document his triumphs
Instead they proved his guilt
Ultimately Supreme Court requires Nixon to turn over all the tapes
Moon Landing
July 20, 1969--Apollo 11
Buzz Aldrin photographed by Neil Armstrong (reflected in visor)
“One small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind”
1st of 6 times humans landed on moon
1973-4 Oil Embargo by Arab States
Halt in Oil Shipments to U.S. (anger over U.S. support of Israel)
Only 12 % of U.S. supply but created long lines
Gas up from 40 to 55 cents
6 % of world’s population uses 40 % of resources
Will U.S. remain rich?
President Jimmy Carter, 1977-81
Born-again Christian from Georgia (Gov.)
“I’ll never lie to you.”
Energy crisis
Inflation
Hostage Crisis
Sense of American Decline—blamed on Carter
Iraqi Drone
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
Before war Air Force intelligence concludes they cannot be used for dispensing bio or chemical weapons
Bush admin. claimed they might even attack US.
Moon Landing
July 20, 1969--Apollo 11
Buzz Aldrin photographed by Neil Armstrong (reflected in visor)
“One small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind”
1st of 6 times humans landed on moon
1973-4 Oil Embargo by Arab States
Halt in Oil Shipments to U.S. (anger over U.S. support of Israel)
Only 12 % of U.S. supply but created long lines
Gas up from 40 to 55 cents
6 % of world’s population uses 40 % of resources
Will U.S. remain rich?
President Jimmy Carter, 1977-81
Born-again Christian from Georgia (Gov.)
“I’ll never lie to you.”
Energy crisis
Inflation
Hostage Crisis
Sense of American Decline—blamed on Carter
Iraqi Drone
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
Before war Air Force intelligence concludes they cannot be used for dispensing bio or chemical weapons
Bush admin. claimed they might even attack US.