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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Phonetics
the study of the production and perception of speech sounds
Historical Phonetics
the study of sound changes in words
Physiological Phonetics
the study of the function of the speech organs during the process of speaking
Acoustic Phonetics
focuses on the differences in the frequency, intensity and duration of the various consonants and vowels
Perceptual Phonetics
the study of a listener's psychoacoustic response (perception) of speech sounds in terms of loudness, pitch, perceived length, and quality
Phonetics
the study of the production and perception of speech sounds
Historical Phonetics
the study of sound changes in words
Physiological Phonetics
the study of the function of the speech organs during the process of speaking
Acoustic Phonetics
focuses on the differences in the frequency, intensity and duration of the various consonants and vowels
Perceptual Phonetics
the study of a listener's psychoacoustic response (perception) of speech sounds in terms of loudness, pitch, perceived length, and quality
Experimental Phonetics
involves the laboratory study of physiological, acoustic, and perceptual phonetics
Clinical Phonetics
involves the study and transcription of aberrant speech behaviors, that is, those that vary from what is considered to be "normal" speech
Phonology
the systematic organization of speech sounds in the production of language
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
designed to represent the sounds of words, not their spellings
Graphemes
printed letters
Phonetic Alphabet
an alphabet that contains a separate latter for each individual sound in a language
Allographs
different letter sequences or patterns that represent the same sound

i.e. for, laugh, photo, muffin = /f/
Morpheme
the smallest unit of language capable of carrying meaning

e.g. books = 2; "book" & "s"
Free Morphemes
morphemes that can stand alone and still carry meaning
Bound Morphemes
morphemes that are bound to other words and carry no meaning when the stand alone

i.e. (music)ian, (book)s
Mean Length of Utterance (MLU)
the average number of morphemes per utterance
/i/
key
/ɪ/
win
/e/
the "a" in rebate
/ɛ/
red
/æ/
had
/u/
moon
/ʊ/
wood
/o/
the "o" in okay
/ɔ/
law
/ɑ/
cod
/ə/
the "a" in about
/ʌ/
bud
/ɚ/
the "er" in butter
/ɝ/
bird
Phoneme
one specific speech sound
Minimal Pairs
words that vary by only one phoneme

i.e. "look" / "book" & "hear" / "beer"
Place of Articulation
where the sound is produced in the mouth
Allophones
variant pronunciations of a particular phoneme that do not change the identity or meaning of the original word

e.g. the first and second "L" in "LittLe" are articulated differently
Diacritics
specialized symbols that are used to indicate allophones variation
-not used in broad transcription
-used in narrow transcription
Syllable
the basic building block of language that may be composed of either one or more vowels alone or a vowel in combination with one or more consonants
Word Stress
increased emphasis in the production of one syllable