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86 Cards in this Set

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What word defines a grinding action produced by an aggregate of particles of greater hardness than the material being removed, which results in the formation of grooves on the surface of the material?
abrasion
What word defines a material composed of particles of sufficient hardness and sharpness that are capable of cutting or scratching a softer material (substrate) when drawn across its surface?
abrasive
What word defines a measure of the irregularity of a finished/polished surface, reported in micrometers?
Surface roughness
What is the abbreviation for surface roughness?
Ra (technically, the a is a subscript)
The smoother a surface is, the (higher/lower) its Ra value
lower
True or False, rough surfaces have HIGH Ra, smooth surfaces have LOW Ra
True
What is the term for a mechanical process by which gross irregularities are reduced, by which desired contours on a restoration or tooth preparation are developed, and by which overhanging restoration margins are corrected?
finishing
What is the terms for a mechanical, chemical or electrolytic process by which the height of irregularities on the surface of a material can be reduced to create a smooth, glossy surface?
polishing
True or False, both finishing and polishing are mechanical processes
True (however, polishing can be chemical or electrolytic)
What type of polishing involves using successively finer abrasives until a polished surface is achieved?
mechanical polishing
What type of polishing involves direct attack of surface irregularities by chemicals, in order to obtain a smooth surface?
chemical polishing
Is it chemical or mechanical polishing that is used in clinical practice?
mechanical
Which of these is true? (pick 1)

A. abrasive particles have many edges
B. abrasive particles are spherically shaped
C. abrasive particles are typically flat and round
D. abrasive particles are conically shaped
A. abrasive particles have many edges
Abrasive particles cause what type of deformation?
plastic
Abrasive particles (increase/decrease) surface hardness of material
increase
True or False, as abrasive particle size increases, it creates a rougher surface.
True
Abrasive particle size is (directly/inversely) related to smoothness of surface
inversely
Why should you rinse the tooth with each successive abrasive strength?
To remove any residual products left over
True or False, heat generated by frictional forces will not damage the tooth
False, it can damage the tooth, tool, and restorative material. You should reduce frictional heat as much as possible
What are two things that can be used to cool the instrument as you work?
liquid (typically water) or air
Movement of bur in direction (towards/opposite) its rotation results in a SMOOTHER surface
opposite
Harder abrasives cut (slower/faster)
faster
Sharp edges cut (faster/slower) than round edges
faster
What is the term for a measure of average size of abrasive particles?
grit
Larger particles, which are MORE abrasive, have a (larger/smaller) grit number
smaller
Smaller particles = (smaller/larger) grit number
larger
What is MORE abrasive, a smaller or larger grit number?
smaller
Fracture of brittle particles exposes (more/fewer) edges
more
(brittle/ductile) metals abrade rapidly, (brittle/ductile) metals clog tool
brittle, ductile
True or False, if you increase the force, you increase abrasion and generate more heat
True
If you increase the rate of speed of an abrasive, do you need more or less pressure to achieve similar results at low speed?
less pressure
Disks and strips are considered (bonded/coated) abrasives
coated
What is the super fancy-ass name for toothpaste? (actually applies to liquid, powders, and gels as well)
dentifrice
What component of dentifrice lowers surface tension of dentifrice and removes debris from tooth surface?
detergent
What component of dentifrice prevents dehydration?
humectant
sorbitol, glycerine, and propylene glycol are examples of what component of dentifrice?
humectant
What component of dentifrice controls consistency, keeps abrasives in suspension?
binder
sodium alginate is an example of what component of dentifrice?
binder
True or False, water is a component in dentifrice
True (I hope you got this right...)
saccharine, mannitol and sorbitol are all examples of what component of dentifrice?
sweetening and flavoring agents (sorbitol is also a humectant)
True or False, dentifrice contains no preservative because the other components all act as preservatives
False
What type of abrasive in dentifrice can inactivate fluoride ion?
dibasic calcium phosphate
What component of dentifrice should remove STAINS but not TOOTH structure?
abrasive
List some commonly used dentifrice abrasives
calcium carbonate
calcium pyrophosphate

dicalcium phosphate dihydrate
anhydrous dicalcium phosphate

tricalcium phosphate

sodium metaphosphate

hydrated alumina

silica
What are two examples of antibacterial ingredients in dentifrice?
xylitol, triclosan
What is a common desensitizer in dentifrice?
potassium nitrate
Which of these is considered EXTRAoral factors and which is INTRAoral factors controlling dentifrice abrasivity?

a. abrasive type, size and quantity in dentifrice

b. exposure of dental root surfaces

c. presence, quantity and quality of existing dental deposits (pellicle, plaque, calculus)

d. toothbrush type

e. patient's coordination ability

f. xerostomia induced by drugs, salivary gland pathology, and radiation therapy

g. saliva consistency and quantity

h. toothbrushing method, force applied during brushing, frequency and duration of brushing

i. presence of restorative materials, dental prostheses and orthodontic appliances

j. amount of dentifrice used
Extraoral: a, d, e, h, j

Intraoral: b, c, f, g, i
What are used for removal of exogenous stains, pellicle, materia alba and oral debris from tooth surfaces in clinic?
Prophylactic pastes ("prophy" paste)
Which of these 4 statements is TRUE regarding what a prophy paste should do?

a. cleansing agent, even if that means being very abrasive

b. polishing agent

c. Should NOT have anti-carious capabilities

d. able to reduce enamel solubility
True: b, d
False: a, c

a. should not be unnecessarily abrasive

c. SHOULD have anti-cariogenic agents in it (NaF and SnF)
Should prophy paste come before or after fluoride treatment?
before
Which of these are commonly used abrasives in prophy paste?

a. pumice
b. 1 micron diamond bits
c. quartz
e. zirconium silicate
f. anhydrous sulfate
a, c, and e.

(b and f are NOT)
Which two abrasives in prophy paste clean better BUT are more abrasive?
Pumice and Quartz
Dentin is abraded __ to ___ times more then enamel, regardless of abrasive
5 to 6 times
True or False, even soft food debris requires intense work to remove from dentures because of the material it is made from
False, simple bushing and rinsing will work for soft food debris
What component of some denture cleansers is a known allergen?
potassium monopersulfate
What denture cleaners decomposes in water to release peroxide and oxygen?
sodium perborate (it's the perborate specifically that decomposes)
Denture cleaners should be...

Difficult to remove or easy to remove?

Remove organic and inorganic material or JUST organic?

Should or should not be bactericidal and fungicidal?
easy, both, should
Should you store dentures in hot or cold water?
cold (at least NOT hot water)
denture resin, if left dry, undergoes contraction of what % volume?
0.5
True or False, you should always use hard bristles on dentures
False
You should avoid (organic/inorganic) solvents with dentures
organic
What is the chemical used in "power bleaching"?
hydrogen peroxide (30-50%)
How long should you apply carbamide peroxide (34-44%)?
30 minutes
Is carbamide peroxide (34-44%) an in-office or at-home bleaching system?
in-office
Is hydrogen peroxide (30-50%) an in-office or at-home bleaching system?
in-office
Where should you store hydrogen peroxide (30-50%) for bleaching purposes?
refrigerator
What is the concentration of carbamide peroxide used for in-office bleaching? At-home bleaching?
34-44% in office; 10-22% at home
What is the concentration of hydrogen peroxide used for in office bleaching? At home bleaching?
30-50% in office; 1.5-6.0% at home
What is the typical pH range for home whitening chemicals?
4.3-6.6
True or False, you should remove plaque prior to using at home bleaching?
True
Bleaching effectiveness related to number of ___ the product is used
hours
True or False, bleaching can damage gold, amalgam, porcelain, and microfilled composites
FALSE!
True or False, bleaching can damage hybrid ionomer, glass ionomer, hybrid and microhybrid composite resin
TRUE
What can happen if you bleach a set of mixed dentition? (in other words, a kid with some permanent and some primary teeth)
Can leave the teeth looking different when the primary are replaced by permanent teeth
True or False, fluorosis and tetracycline stains are two types of stain that bleaching will not work at all on
False! It will work on these
Is it safe to bleach dentin?
No
What happens if you bleach dentin?
Peroxide bleaching agents easily diffuse through .5mm to produce cytotoxicity
Peroxide bleaching agents are cytotoxic in (direct/inverse) proportion to their concentration
direct
True or False, it is advisable (with in-office bleaching) to use anesthesia first
False, don't do this!
True or False, bleaching can cause tooth sensitivity
True (duhz.)
How can bleaching indirectly cause TMJ issues?
The bleaching tray causes it
What effect does bleaching have on the margins of existing restorations?
increases marginal leackage
What does the oxygen released in bleaching products do to resin-containing dental materials?
Interferes with polymerization
True or False, the light used in "power bleaching" is a misnomer, it's a non-visible UV light
FALSE!!! This light is bright and can harm the patient's eyes... have them use eyewear
An abrasive cuts into a material known generally as what?
substrate
Fill in the blanks with the three words below:

___ occurs when a(n) ___ is drawn across the surface of a(n) _____

a. substrate
b. abrasive
c. abrasion
abrasion occurs when a(n) abrasive is drawn across the surface of a(n) substrate