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95 Cards in this Set

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What branch of science studies how characteristics get passed from parent to offspring?
Genetics
What general guidelines of traits does a person’s DNA determine?
Genetic factors
What “non-biological” factors are involved in a person’s surroundings such as the nature of the person’s parents, the person’s friends, and the person’s behavioral choices?
Environmental factors
What factors in a person’s life does the quality of his or her relationship with God determine?
Spiritual factors
What section of DNA codes for the production of a protein or a portion of protein, thereby causing a trait?
Genes
Which RNA performs transcriptions?
Messenger RNA
Which RNA contains a special sequence of three nucleotides per group (anticodon)?
Transfer RNA
What is a three-nucleotide base sequence on tRNA?
Anticodon
What is a sequence of three nucleotide bases on mRNA that refers to a specific amino acid?
Codon
What DNA in the nucleus of the cell coils around and receives support by proteins?
Chromosome
What process is for asexual reproduction in eukaryotic cells?
Mitosis
What time interval occurs between cellular reproduction?
Interphase
What kind of cell is ready to begin reproduction, containing duplicated DNA and centrioles?
Mother cell
What region joins two sister chromatids?
Centromere
What figure is produced when the chromosomes of a species during metaphase are arranged according to their homologous pairs?
Karotype
What cell has chromosomes that come in homologous pairs?
Diploid cell
What cell has only one representative of each chromosome?
Haploid cell
What number represents the total number of chromosomes in a diploid cell?
Diploid number (2n)
What number represents the number of homologous pairs in a diploid cell?
Haploid number (n)
What process forms gametes (n) from a diploid cell (2n)?
Meiosis
What haploid cells (n) are produced by diploid cells (2n) for the purpose of sexual reproduction?
Gametes
What non-cellular infectious agent has genetic material (RNA and DNA) inside a protective protein coat and cannot reproduce on its own?
Virus
What specialized proteins aid in destroying infectious agents?
Antibodies
What weakened or inactive version of a pathogen stimulates the body’s production of antibodies that can aid in destroying the pathogen?
Vaccine
Doctors once claimed highly educated women who were emotionally cold and rejected their children had a higher rate of autism. What kind of factor are they considering?
Environmental factors
Some scientists believe autism runs in families and are searching for chromosomes that cause autism. What kind of factor are they considering?
Genetic factors
Some people believe children with autism are possessed by demons. What kind of factor are they considering?
Spiritual factors
What step of protein synthesis involves writing a negative image to copy the nucleotide sequence of DNA?
Transcription
What step of protein synthesis involves converting the language of nucleotide base sequences into the language of amino acid sequences?
Translation
What kind of RNA is produced first during protein synthesis?
Messenger RNA
What kind of RNA is produced last during protein synthesis?
Transfer RNA
What are found on tRNA, codons or anticodons?
Anticodons
What are found on mRNA, codons or anticodons?
Codons
What kind of RNA is produced during transcription?
Messenger RNA
What kind of RNA is produced during translation?
Transfer RNA
To what nucleotide is uracil attracted?
Adenine
What nucleotide does uracil imitate in its actions? Thymine
Thymine
A DNA strand has the following sequence of nucleotides:
guanine, cytosine, thymine, adenine, thymine, cytosine, adenine, guanine, thymine. What sequence do you expect to see on the mRNA?
Cytosine, guanine, adenine, uracil, adenine, guanine, uracil, cytosine, adenine.
A DNA strand has the following sequence of nucleotides: guanine, cytosine, thymine, adenine, thymine, cytosine, adenine, guanine, thymine. How many codons will the mRNA have?
3 codons because there are three nucleotide bases per codon
A DNA strand has the following sequence of nucleotides:
guanine, cytosine, thymine, adenine, thymine, cytosine, adenine, guanine, thymine. For how many amino acids will the mRNA code?
3 amino acids because there are three nucleotide bases per amino acid
An mRNA strand has the following sequence of nucleotides:
cytosine, guanine, adenine, uracil, adenine, guanine, uracil, cytosine, adenine. What three tRNA anticodons do you expect?
Guanine, cytosine, uracil
Adenine, uracil, cytosine
Adenine, guanine, uracil
Three tRNA strands have the following sequence of nucleotides:
Guanine, cytosine, uracil
Adenine, uracil, cytosine
Adenine, guanine, uracil.
To what mRNA anticodons was it attracted?
Cytosine, guanine, adenine, uracil, adenine, guanine, uracil, cytosine, adenine
An mRNA strand has the following sequence of nucleotides:
cytosine, guanine, adenine, uracil, adenine, guanine, uracil, cytosine, adenine. From what DNA sequence did it transcribe?
Guanine, cytosine, thymine, adenine, thymine, cytosine, adenine, guanine, thymine
Which step of protein synthesis makes RNA based upon the order and number of nucleotide bases in DNA?
Transcription
Which step of protein synthesis makes protein based upon the order and number of nucleotide bases in RNA?
Translation
An RNA strand has an anticodon. Is it tRNA or mRNA?
tRNA
Which step of protein synthesis occurs in a ribosome. Is this transcription or translation?
Translation
Which step of protein synthesis occurs in the nucleus. Is this transcription or translation?
Transcription
You look at a cell under a microscope and see distinct chromosomes. What phase of mitosis could not be occurring?
Interphase
You look at a cell under a microscope and see chromosomes attached to microtubules, but not lined up on the equatorial plane. What phase of mitosis is occurring?
Prophase
You look at a cell under a microscope and see chromosomes attached to microtubules, but lined up on the equatorial plane. What phase of mitosis is occurring?
Metaphase
You look at a cell under a microscope and see chromosomes begin to split. What phase of mitosis is occurring?
Anaphase
You look at a cell under a microscope and see nuclear material begins to surround newly formed chromosomes. What phase of mitosis is occurring? Telophase
Telophase
Name the four phases of mitosis.
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Which of the five phases (anaphase, interphase, metaphase, prophase, telophase) are not part of animal mitosis?
Interphase
The diploid number of a cell is 16. What is its haploid number?
8
The haploid number of a cell is 9. What is its diploid number?
18
The diploid number of a cell is 2n. What is its haploid number?
n
The haploid number of a cell is n. What is its diploid number?
2n
The diploid number of a cell is n. What is its haploid number?
n/2
The haploid number of a cell is n/2. What is its diploid number?
n
Which is made of a diploid cell, a regular animal cell or a gamete?
Regular animal cell
Which is made of a haploid cell, a regular animal cell or a gamete?
Gamete
Which has more chromosomes, a regular animal cell or a gamete?
Regular animal cell
A diploid cell with duplicated chromosomes turns into two diploid cells with no duplicated chromosomes. What just happened to the cell, mitosis, meiosis I, or meiosis II?
Mitosis
A diploid cell with duplicated chromosomes turns into two haploid cells with duplicated chromosomes. What just happened to the cell, mitosis, meiosis I, or meiosis II? Meiosis I
Meiosis I
A haploid cell with duplicated chromosomes turns into two haploid cells with no duplicated chromosomes. What just happened to the cell, mitosis, meiosis I, or meiosis II?
Meiosis II
Which looks the most like mitosis, meiosis I or meiosis II? Why?
Meiosis II because of the spindle formed from two haploid cells
A single cell with seven pairs of homologous chromosomes goes through meiosis I. How many cells result at the end of meiosis I?
Two cells
A single cell with seven pairs of homologous chromosomes goes through meiosis I. How many chromosomes are in each resulting cell at the end of meiosis I?
Seven chromosomes
A single cell with seven pairs of homologous chromosomes goes through meiosis I. Are the chromosomes in each cell duplicated or not at the end of meiosis I?
Duplicated
A pair of cells with seven pairs of homologous chromosomes goes through meiosis II. How many cells result at the end of meiosis II?
Four cells
A pair of cells with seven pairs of homologous chromosomes goes through meiosis II. How many chromosomes are in each resulting cell at the end of meiosis II?
Seven chromosomes
A single cell with seven pairs of homologous chromosomes goes through meiosis II. Are the chromosomes in each cell duplicated or not at the end of meiosis II?
Not duplicated
What do scientists call a gamete produced in male animals?
Sperm
What do scientists call a gamete produced in female animals?
Egg
How many useful gametes does meiosis of male animals produce?
Four sperm
How many useful gametes does meiosis of female animals produce?
One egg
Which kind of meiosis have three polar bodies leftover, male or female?
Female
Which is bigger a polar body or an egg?
An egg
Which kind of gamete can a sperm fertilize, a polar body or an egg?
An egg
Which kind of gamete cannot form new life, a polar body or an egg? A polar body
A polar body
Which kind of gamete can move about on its own, sperm or egg?
Sperm
Which kind of gamete is immobile, sperm or egg?
Egg
What kind of genetic material does a virus inject into a bacteria?
DNA and RNA
What does a virus inject into a bacteria via the lytic pathway?
Genetic material
What does virus DNA instruct the bacterium’s biosynthetic machinery to make and assemble via the lytic pathway?
Viral proteins and genetic material
What do the the viral proteins and genetic material form via the lytic pathway?
More viruses
What happens to the cell when too many viruses form via the lytic pathway?
The cell ruptures
When the cell ruptures because of viruses using the lytic pathway, what does it release?
More viruses into the body
Which of the four criteria of life does a virus lack?
Reproduction
Is a virus alive?
No
Do vaccines cure or prevent disease?
Prevent
What does the body produce after a vaccine?
Antibodies
Can a vaccine help a person who has already contracted a disease?
No, the virus will either kill the person or the body will produce antibodies to defeat the virus