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76 Cards in this Set

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What kind of digestion takes place outside of the cell?
Extracellular digestion
What part of the fungus is responsible for extracellular digestion and absorption of the digested food?
Mycelium
What is a filament of fungal cells?
Hypha
What kind of hypha is imbedded in the material on which the fungus grows?
Rhizoid hypha
What kind of hypha is not imbedded in the material upon which the fungus grows?
Aerial hypha
What is the name of specialized aerial hypha that produces spores?
Sporophore
What is the name of an aerial hypha that asexually reproduces to make more filaments?
Stolon
What kind of hypha is from a parasitic fungus that enters the host’s cells and absorbs nutrition directly from the cytoplasm?
Haustorium
What chemical provides both toughness and flexibility in mushrooms and other organisms?
Chitin
What is a thin covering tissue?
Membrane
What is the main characteristic of phylum Basdiomycota?
It forms sexual spores on clublike basidia.
What is the main characteristic of phylum Ascomycota?
It forms sexual spores in saclike asci.
What is the main characteristic of phylum Zygomycota?
It forms sexual spores where hyphae fuse.
What is the main characteristic of phylum Chytridiomycota?
It forms spores with flagellum.
What is the main characteristic of phylum Deuteromycota?
This fungi has no known method of sexual reproduction.
What is the main characteristic of phylum Myxomycota?
This fungi looks like protozoa for much of their lives.
Does extracellular digestion occur in most species of fungi or a few? If a few, name one.
All have extracellular digestion.
Does most species of fungi or a few have stolons? If a few, name one.
Phylum Zygomycota have stolons.
Does most species of fungi or a few have cell walls containing chitin? If a few, name one.
Most have cell walls containing chitin.
Does most species of fungi or a few have caps and stalks? If a few, name one.
Phylum basidiomycota has caps and stalks.
Does most species of fungi or a few have sporangiosphores? If a few, name one.
Phylum Zygomycota has sporangiosphores.
Does most species of fungi or a few have mycelia? If a few, name one.
Most have mycelia.
Does most species of fungi or a few have hyphae? If a few, name one.
Most have hyphae.
Does most species of fungi or a few have haustoria? If a few, name one.
Phylum Myxomycota have haustoria.
Does most species of fungi or a few have motile spores? If a few, name one.
Phylum Chytridiomycota and some slime molds have motile spores.
Does most species of fungi or a few have septate hyphae? If a few, name one.
Zygomycota have septate hyphae.
Does most species of fungi or a few have cells? If a few, name one.
All have cells.
Does most species of fungi or a few have rhizoid hyphae? If a few, name one.
Most have rhizoid hyphae.
Which are larger yeast cells or bacteria cells?
Yeast cells
What member of phylum Basidiospore stores its basidiospores in its gills?
Mushrooms
What member of phylum Basidiospore stores its basidiospores in its membrane?
Puffballs
What member of phylum Basidiospore stores its basidiospores on its shelves?
Shelf fungi
List the eight stages in the life cycle of mushrooms.
1. Mycelium formed from sexual reproduction grow quickly and crowd out the parent. 2. A membrane forms above the ground (button stage). 3. The stipe (stalk) and cap emerge from the button. 4. The full stipe and cap are present. 5. Basidiospores attached to basidia are stored in the gills. 6. Basidia release basidiospores into the air. 7. New mycelia grow from spores and fuse. 8. Two fused mycelia sexually reproduce.
What is a host upon which a parasitic organism feeds when the main host is unavailable?
Alternate host
What fungus uses an alternate host? Name the main and alternate host.
Wheat rust: wheat (main host) and barberry bush (alternate host)
What type of fungus is best known for fermentation? Name the phylum.
Yeast, phylum Ascomycota
An organism reproduces by making a copy of its DNA, elongating to twice its original length, and separating. Is it kingdom Monera or Fungi?
Monera (binary fission)
An organism reproduces by making a copy of its nucleus, sending the nucleus and cytoplasm into a tiny pouch, growing the pouch to the size of the parent, and separating. Is it kingdom Monera or Fungi?
Fungi (Budding)
Name at least two pathogenic fungi and the maladies they cause.
Claviceps purpurea (ergot of rye, kills humans);
Cryophonectria parasitica (chestnut blight, wipes out chestnut trees);
Ophiostoma ulmi (Dutch elm disease, wipes out elm strees);
Synchytrium endobioticum (potato wart; kills tots);
Rusts (crop damage);
Smuts (crop damage).
What puts a fungus into Deutoromycota?
Scientists have no clue about how the fungus reproduces.
What is the anaerobic breakdown of sugars into smaller molecules?
Fermentation
What is a zygote surrounded by a hard, protective covering?
Zygospore
What is the result of sexual reproduction when each parent contributes half of the DNA necessary for the offspring?
Zygote
What is a chemical secreted by a living organism that kills or reduces the reproduction rate of other organisms?
Antibiotic
What percentage of a mushroom is visible above ground? Name those parts.
10 percent (cap, gills, stalk)
What percentage of a mushroom is under ground? Name that part.
90 percent (mycelium)
What hyphae have separated cells?
Septate hyphae
What hyphae have cells fused together?
Nonseptate hyphae
What hyphae support the fungus from underground and digest the food?
Rhizoid hyphae
What aerial hyphae asexually reproduce to make more filaments?
Stolons
What aerial hyphae produce spores?
Sporophores
What hyphae enter a host’s cells underground and absorb nutrition directly from the host’s cytoplasm?
Haustorium
What two hyphae are aerial: haustoria, rhiziod hyphae, sporophores, or stolons?
sporophores, or stolons? Sporophores and stolons
What two hyphae are underground: haustoria, rhiziod hyphae, sporophores, or stolons?
Haustoria and rhizoid hyphae
What sporophore forms spores within an enclosure to keep them hidden?
Sporangiophore
What sporophore forms spores that are not covered?
Conidiophore
Name three ways in which bread mold can reproduce and state whether each is asexual or sexual.
Stolons (asexual); spores (asexual); zygospores (sexual).
How does a stolon reproduce a new fungi asexually?
The stolon elongates and grows a new mycelium.
How does a spore reproduce a new fungi asexually?
A sporophore releases a spore, which grows a new mycelium (asexual).
How do zygospores reproduce a new fungi sexually?
Two mycelia form a zygospore that grows a new mycelium.
What happens when an antibiotic is overused?
Strains of the pathogen grow immune to it and become harder to destroy.
In what genus does the fungus that produces penicillin belong?
Penicillium
What kingdom does a slime mold resemble when in its feeding stage (plasmodium)?
Protista
How can a gardener remove slime mold?
Keep the habitat dry by raking the surface of the garden every day.
What are the two major forms of mutualism in which fungi participate?
Lichen and mycorrhiza
Describe the relationship between the two organisms in lichen and the job of each?
Mutualism: the algae produce food through photosynthesis, while the fungus (usually Ascomycota) supports and protects the algae.
Describe the relationship between the two organisms in mycorrhyza and the job of each?
Mutualism: plants with root systems tap into excess minerals released by mycelia when minerals are scarce, while the fungus forms haustoria, absorb nutrients from the roots, and supply minerals to the soil.
What is a dustlike substance released by lichen that stores the spores of algae and fungi in a hard, protective coating?
Soredium
Are fungi mostly autotrophic or heterotrophic?
Mostly heterotrophic
Are fungi mostly parasitic or saprophytic?
Saprophytic
Are fungi mostly multicellular or single celled?
Multicellular
What kind of hyphae exist in all multicellar fungi?
Rhizoid hyphae
What specialized hyphae exist in only some fungi?
Haustoria, sporangiophores, stolons
What fungi benefit 80% of all plants with root systems and how?
Mycorrhiza is a mutualistic relationship in which fungi supplies minerals to the soil near the root systems of plants.
What kind of fungi are listed under kingdom Protista by some biologists?
Slime molds
What kind of medicine is penicillin?
Antibiotic