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23 Cards in this Set

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Name the 4 processes for which plants require water. Which of these processes can be neglected for a short amount of time?
A plant uses water for:
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
TURGOR PRESSURE
HYDROLYSIS
TRANSPORT

Turgor pressure can be ignored for a short time.
A biologist studies two plants. The flowers of the first plant open each morning and close each night. The second plant's flowers stay open all of the time. However, if the plant is placed so that one of its sides is in the shade and the other is in the sunlight, the plant will eventually grow so that all of its leaves point towards the sunlight. Which plant is using NASTIC MOVEMENT and which is using PHOTOTROPISM?
The 1st plant is using NASTIC MOVEMENTS and the

2nd is using PHOTOROPISM
Briefly describe the cohesion-tension theory of water transport in plants.
The COHESION-TENSION theory states that when water evaporates through the STOMATA in a plant's leaves - a deficit of water is created. This causes the water molecules just below those that evaporated to move up and take their place. Since water molecules like to stay together, however, the water molecules just below the ones that moved up also move up, in order to stay close. This causes a chain reaction - eventually causing water from the roots to move up into other parts of the plant.
Do xylem cells need to be alive in order for PHLOEM to do their job? Why or why not?
Phloem cells must be ALIVE for the phloem to do their job because the phloem cells take an active part in TRANSLOCATION.
What substances do xylem contain? What substances do phloem contain?
Xylem contain water and dissolved minerals, while phloem contain sugar and organic substances.
Do insectivorous plants really eat insects? Why or why not?
Insectivorous plants do NOT really eat insects. They decompose the insects and use their raw materials for biosynthesis. Insectivorous plants produce their own food via photosynthesis just like other plants.
From a genetic point of view, what is the difference between vegetative reproduction and sexual reproduction in plants?
Vegetative reproduction leads to offspring with genetic codes which are identical to the parent. Sexual reproduction leads to offspring with genetic codes which are similar to, but not identical to the parents' genetic codes.
A gardener says that one limb of his crabapple tree now produces normal-sized apples. What must the gardener have done to make this happen?
The gardener must have grafted limbs from a tree that produces normal-sized apples to his crabapple tree.
What is the male reproductive organ of a flower? What is the female reproductive organ?
The STAMEN is the male reproductive organ. The CARPEL is the female reproductive organ.
Why are the pollen grains and embryo sacs of flowers sometimes considered the gametophyte generation in an alternation of generations life cycle?
Both structures are MULTICELLULAR and they both reproduce using GAMETES. Thisis the basic definition of the gametophyte generation in an alternations of generation life cycle.
What two types of cells are found in pollen grain?
There is at least one SPERM CELL, and there is a TUBE NUCLEUS.
Typically,how many cells are in an embryo sac? How many of them get fertilized?
Typically, there are 7 CELLS IN AN EMBRYO SAC. 2 of these cells get fertilized.
Study FIGURE 15.6

Identify STRUCTURES
A. stigma, B. style, C. ovary, D. ovule, E. sepal, F. anther, G. filament, H. petal, I. receptacle, J. pedicel
What structure is made up of the STIGMA, STYLE, OVARY from FIGURE 15.6?
CARPEL
What part is made up of the ANTHER and FILAMENT in FIGURE 15.6?
STAMEN
What is the difference between pollination and fertilization?
Pollination is simply the transfer of pollen from an ANTHER to a STIGMA...while fertilization is the act of the SPERMS fusing with the EGG and the LARGE CENTRAL NUCLEUS in the embryo sac. You can use the terms "stamen" and "carpel" instead of "anther" and "stigma" but the latter are more precise.
How many sperms cells are used in plant fertilization?
TWO sperm cells are used because plants engage in double fertilization.
Where does the ENDOSPERM come from? What is the purpose?
The ENDOSPERM comes from the fertilization of the large, two-nucleus cell that is at the center of the embryo sac. It provides nutrition for the developing embryo.
The COYLEDON/S help provide food for the plant before and often after germination. How do coyledons accomplish each task?
Cotyledons either absorb the endosperm or aid in the transfer of nutrients from the endosperm to the embryo. After germination, they often perform the first photosynthesis in the plant.
name the three basic parts of the plant embryo and what each gives rise to in germination.
RADICLE - becomes the root
HYPOCOTYL - becomes the stem
EPICOTYL - gives rise to the first true leaves of the plant
What is the purpose of a fruit?
A fruit allows for the DISPERSAL of seeds to places away from the parent.
Name at least 3 ways in which pollen is transferred from the stamens of one flower to the carpel of another.
Name at least 3...

wind, bees, beetles, birds, moths, or butterflies
Why are cotyledons sometimes called "seed leaves"?
They form leaf-like structures if they end up rising above ground with the seedling. They often even carry out photosynthesis for a while.