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21 Cards in this Set

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Do the vast majority of animals have backbones?
No. All but one of the phyla in the animal kingdom are invertebrates (orgaisms with no backbone).
Determine the symmetry of the following organisms: (p. 359)
a. BILATERAL - because it can only be cut into identical right and left halves
b. RADIAL - because any up and down cut through the center makes two identical halves
c. BILATERAL
d. RADIAL
How do sponges get their prey?
Sponges get their prey by pulling water into themselves.
If a sponge is soft, does it contain spicules or spongin? What purpose do these substances serve in a sponge?
It contains SPONGIN. These substances support the sponge.
What is the predominant mode of asexual reproduction in a sponge?
When asexually reproducing, sponges use BUDDING.
What roles do amoebocytes play in the anatomy of a sponge?
Amebocytes help digest and transport nutrients, they help carry waste to be excreted, they bring necessary gases such as oxygen to the cells, and they form the spicules or spongin.
When does a sponge produce gemmules?
A sponge produces gemmules during during inclement times.
What is the difference between the NEMATOCYSTS of a hydra and those of a sea anemone?
Hydra nematocysts are triggered with pressure while the sea anemone's are triggered chemically.
Why do cnidarians not need respiratory or excretory systems?
Cnidarians do not need these systems because their body walls are so thin that gases diffuse right through them.
Some biology books say that jellyfish live "dual lives". Why?
Jellyfish spend part of their lives as polyps and the other part as medusas.
If a jellyfish reproduces sexually, what form is it in?
It must be in a medusa form
What is another name for a large coral colony?
Large coral colonies are called coral reefs.
Study Figure 11.7 - p. 342 - be able to name all parts
mouth, ventral nerve chord, seminal receptacles, seminal vesicles, ventral blood vessel, nephridia with nephridiopores, clitellum, intestine, dorsal blood vessel, gizzard, crop, oviduct, ovary, esophagus, aortic arches, pharynx, ganglia
What benefits do earthworms give the plants in the soil that they inhabit?
Earthworms bring minerals up from the lower parts of the soil and mix them with the nutrients at the top of the soil, which makes the soil fertile for plants. Their tunnels also allow oxygen to travel to the roots of a plant more easily.
If you pick up two earthworms and the first feels very slimy near the clitellum and the second does not, what can you conclude about the first earthworm?
the first one must have recently mated but not yet produced a cocoon.
What similarities exist between the hydra's sexual reproduction and the earthworm's? What differences exist?
The earthworm is hermaphroditic and the hydra can be as well. However, although a hydra can sometimes mate with itself, an earthworm cannot.
What will happen to an earthworm if its cuticles gets dry?
the earthworm will suffocate - because oxygen cannot travel through a dry cuticle.
Why don't planarians need circulatory systems?
Planarians do not need circulatory systems because the intestine is so highly-branched that all cells are near it, so they can get their food directly from the intestine.
If a flatworm has no complex nervous or digestive systems, is it most likely free-living or parasitic?
PARASITIC - without complex nervous or digestive systems, it must not need to seek out and fully digest prey.
What is the main mode of asexual reproduction in a planarian?
When planarians asexually reproduce, they do so by regeneration.
Place each organism in one of the following phyla: Porifera, Cnidaria, Annelida, Mollusca, Platyheminthes

a. sea anemone
b. clam
c. sponge
d. flatworm
e. segmented worm
a. Cnidaria
b. Mollusca
c. Porifera
d. Platyhelminthes
e. Annelida