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84 Cards in this Set

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The transport of dissolved substances into cells.
The breakdown of absorbed substances.
The breakdown of food molecules with a release of energy
The removal of soluble waste materials.
The removal of nonsoluble waste materials.
The release of biosynthesized substances.
The actual locomotion of a cell from one point to another, or we might mean movement of things within a cell.
Sensing and responding to changes in the surroundings.
Maintaining the status quo - The cell must make sure that all of its organelles are functioning properly, that all organelles are supplied with the substances that they need, and that everything within the cell is running accordingly.
All cells die. Thus, in order to maintain life, cells must produce other cells via this method.
The study of cells.
cell wall
A rigid structure on the outside of certain cells, usually plant and bacteria cells.
A carbohydrate that hardens cellulose.
Small holes in the cell walls that allow substances (like nutrients) to diffuse through the cell wall and into the cell. They also allow waste products from the cell to diffuse into the cell's surroundings
secondary cell walls
Walls that are formed on the inside of the original cell wall once a plant cell has matured and stopped growing. They no longer need to be flexible, so they are much more rigid, providing better protection for the contents of the cell
primary cell wall.
Once the secondary cell walls are formed, the original cell wall is usually referred to as ______________.
middle lamella
The thin film between the cell walls of adjacent plant cells
and is made primarily of pectin.
plasma membrane
The semipermeable membrane between the cell contents and either the cell wall or the cell's surroundings.

Because it is semipermeable, it allows certain substances, and not others, to pass through it.
Allows certain substances (nutrients, water, and oxygen, for example) to pass through and enter the cell, but it does not allow other substances (certain toxins, for example) in.
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended.
Substances in which at least one atom has an imbalance of protons and electrons.
cytoplasmic streaming
The motion of cytoplasm in a cell that results in a coordinated movement of the cell's contents.
The organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy.
The organelle in animal cells responsible for hydrolysis reactions that break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids.

Hydrolysis reactions do not occur on their own. They need enzyme catalysts in order to make them happen. Thus, the lysosome is full of enzyme catalysts for the hydrolysis reactions that it needs to perform.
Non-membrane-bounded organelles that are found in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. These organelles are responsible for synthesis of proteins in the cell.
endoplasmic reticulum
An organelle composed of an extensive network of folded membranes that performs several tasks within a cell.

Commonly abbreviated as: ER
rough ER
ER that is dotted with ribosomes and is a part of protein synthesis.

Typically, specialized proteins that are secreted by certain cells are produced here.
smooth ER
ER that has no ribosomes

Although no protein synthesis occurs in this type of ER, many other chemicals can be produced in this organelle. Lipids are made in order to store excess energy, and hormones and steroids, which affect a range of cell functions, can be made here as well. In addition, this ER inactivates certain harmful byproducts of digestion and respiration and then sends them to the plasma membrane to be ejected.
Organelle involved in biosynthesis is found only in plant cells, algae cells, and some protozoa.
Organelles that store starches or oils.

When plants have excess monosaccharides from photosynthesis, they are typically linked together in a long polysaccharide called starch. This allows the plant to store them for future use. This are is where these starches are stored.
This structure contains the pigment chlorophyll, which you have already learned is a catalyst for the photosynthesis process. Photosynthesis actually takes place in the fluid that fills this structure. (this is the chromoplast that is most familiar)
Photosynthesis actually takes place in this fluid that fills the chloroplast
a membrane-bounded “sac.”
food vacuoles
hold and stores food while it is being digested
contractile vacuoles
regulate the amount of water in the cell
central vacuole
A large vacuole that rests at the center of most plant cells and is filled with a solution that contains a high concentration of solutes.
turgor pressure
Water tends to enter the central vacuole by osmosis. This makes the central vacuole bigger and bigger, causing it to push the cytoplasm and all of the organelles against the cell wall. This causes the cell to be pressurized, much like a balloon. This particular pressure helps keep a plant rigid.
waste vacuoles
Vacuoles that contain the nondigestible, nontoxic waste products of digestion
phagocytic vacuole
A vacuole that holds the matter which a cell engulfs.
The process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells.
When a vacuole is small, it is typically called ___________.
pinocytic vesicle
Vesicle formed at the plasma membrane to allow the absorption of large molecules.
secretion vesicle
Vesicle that holds secretion products so that they can be transported to the plasma membrane and released.
When a cell needs to absorb a molecule that is large (but not so large that it needs to be engulfed), a tiny pocket is formed in the plasma membrane. That pocket is then pinched off, forming a vacuole. This process is called ___________.
Golgi bodies
The organelles where proteins and lipids are stored and then modified to suit the needs of the cell.
They are comprised of flattened, interconnected membrane sacs that look like a stack of pancakes.
Interesting organelles found mostly in animal cells. Some plant cells have them, but most do not.

They form flagella or cilia in cells that have them and they are involved in the asexual reproduction of cells. (mitosis)
Spiral strands of protein molecules that form a tubelike structure.
basal body
Once the centriole has formed a cilium, it stays at the base of the cilium and is called a __________ ___________.
the asexual reproduction of cells
Often called the “control center of the cell,” it holds the cell's main DNA, which tells the cell everything it needs to know about its structure and functions.
nuclear DNA
DNA stored in the nucleus and is a copy of the parent cell.
nuclear membrane
A highly-porous membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm.
ribonucleic acid
a substance found in the DNA and referred to as RNA
Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell.
This is the center where RNA is made. Ribosomes are also assembled here and then transported out of the nucleus.
mitochondrial DNA
DNA stored in the mitochondrion. It is involved in producing the proteins that the cell needs specifically for respiration.
A network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement.
Fine, threadlike proteins found in the cell's cytoskeleton.
intermediate filaments
Threadlike proteins in the cell's cytoskeleton that are roughly twice as thick as microfilaments.

are mostly responsible for strengthening and supporting the cell, which allows it to keep its shape.
A lipid in which one of the fatty acid molecules has been replaced by a molecule that contains a phosphate group.

A plasma membrane is usually constructed of proteins, cholesterol, and these......
Molecules that contain three fatty acids linked together on a glycerol molecule.
hydrophilic end
hydrophobic end
phospholipid bilayer
In the plasma membrane, phospholipids are arranged in a double layer with the hydrophobic ends pointing towards each other and the hydrophilic ends pointing out towards the surroundings and in towards the cell. This layer is called the phospholipid bilayer ___________ _____________.
When a carbohydrate is attached to a protein, the protein is called a ____________.
When a carbohydrate is attached to a phospholipid, it is called a ______________.
passive transport
Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane according to the dictates of osmosis or diffusion.

No cellular energy is expended as a result of the substance passing through the plasma membrane
active transport
Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane (typically opposite the dictates of osmosis or diffusion) aided by a process that requires energy
isotonic solution.
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in the solution.
hypertonic solutions
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution.
Collapse of a walled cell's cytoplasm due to a lack of water.
The rupturing of a cell due to excess internal pressure.
hypotonic solution.
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution.

(There is greater solute concentration on the inside of the cell than on the outside. As a result, water flows by osmosis into the cell until the cell bursts from too much water pressure.)
activation energy
Energy necessary to get a chemical reaction going.
cellular respiration
The chemical process that generates most of the energy in the cell, supplying molecules needed to make the metabolic reactions of an organism run.
pyruvic acid

Aerobic cellular respiration is accomplished through a four-stage process that begins in the cytoplasm. When the cell wants to “burn” a monosaccharide for energy, the monosaccharide first goes into the cytoplasm. There, enzymes catalyze a reaction that causes the monosaccharide molecule to lose some of its hydrogen atoms and form 2 molecules of this substance.
chemical formula for glucose
the first stage of cellular respiration

Much like striking a match to start something burning, the amount of energy needed to begin this reaction is half of that which is released when the reaction finishes.
formation of acetyl coenzyme A
the second stage of cellular respiration

Once 2 molecules of pyruvic acid are made, they head to a mitochondrion. As they cross into the mitochondrion, the next stage takes place. This stage is also called the “oxidation of pyruvic acid” in some biology texts. In this process, the pyruvic acid is broken down, and a protein (coenzyme A) is attached to the remains.
Krebs cycle
third stage in cellular respiration

This stage is sometimes called the “citric acid cycle,” and it also takes place in the mitochondrion. It takes the 2 molecules of acetyl coenzyme A and reacts them with oxygen to make hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and coenzyme A again. This is actually a long, complicated procedure that involves many reactions which are carefully controlled by enzymes.
electron transport system
last stage in cellular respiration

This stage produces the most energy of all four stages. Just like the Krebs cycle, it takes place in the mitochondrion. In this stage, the hydrogen that was produced in the previous three stages is carefully reacted with oxygen to make water. This is actually done through a complicated series of enzyme-controlled reactions.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
composed of a substance called adenosine linked 3 three phosphate groups. When 1 of the phosphate groups is broken away from the rest of the molecule, a gentle release of energy occurs. This energy is sufficient to accomplish most tasks in a cell, but gentle enough so that it will not harm the cell.
adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
The resulting molecule when the phosphate group breaks off from the rest of the molecule (in ATP) and an adenosine attached to 2 phosphate groups is left over.
cellular fermentation
In anaerobic conditions, the cell eventually converts the pyruvic acid into alcohol or lactic acid. This is called __________ ______________.