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115 Cards in this Set

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What cartilage forms the Adam's apple?
The laryngeal prominence
What cartilage is a "lid" for the larynx?
The epiglottis
What cartilage is shaped like a signet ring?
The trachial cartilage
connects the larynx to the primary bronchi...
trachea
site of tonsils...
pharynx
food passageway posterior to the trachea...
esophagus
flaps over the glottis during swallowing of food...
epiglottis
contains the vocal cords...
larynx
nerve that activates the diaphragm during inspiration...
phrenic nerve
pleural layer lining the walls of the thorax...
parietal pleura
site from which oxygen enters the pulmonary blood...
alveolus
connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx...
opening of auditory tube
opening between the vocal folds...
glottis
increases air turbulence in the nasal cavity...
concha
separates the oral cavity from the vasal cavity...
palate
The upper respiratory system consists of the ______, ______ _____, _____ _____, and _____.
nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and pharynx.
The upper respiratory passageways ____, _____, and _____ in incoming air
filter, warm, and humidify
Air normally enters through the paired _____ _____, or nostrils, which open into the _____ _____ . The _____ is the space contained within the flexible tissues of the nose.
external nares
nasal cavity
vestibule
What is made up of portions of the maxillary and palatine bones and forms the floor of the nasal cavity and seperates it from the oral?
bony hard palate
What is the chamber shared by the digestive and respiratory systems...
The pharynx
the _____, and the _____ is lined with a stratified squamous epithelium that resists abrasion, chemical attack, and invasion by pathogens.
oropharynx
laryngopharynx
Inhaled air leaves the pharynx and enters the larynx through a narrow opening called the ______
glottis
The _____ is a cartilaginous structure that surrounds and protects the glottis.
larynx
Three large, unpaired cartilages form the larynx: (1) the _______ cartilage, (2) the______ cartilage, and (3) the ______
thyroid
cricoid
epiglottis
The ______ cartilage is the largest laryngeal cartilage and is made of _____ cartilage.
thyroid
hyaline
The larynx also contains three pairs of smaller hyaline cartilages:
1-)_____, 2-)______, 3-)_____
The arytenoid
The corniculate
The cuneiform.
articulate with the superior border of the enlarged portion of the cricoid cartilage...
arytenoid
articulate with the arytenoid cartilages
corniculate
involved with the opening and closing of the glottis and the production of sound
The corniculate and arytenoid cartilages
The trachea branches within the _____ , giving rise to the _____ and ____ _____ ____
mediastinum
right and left primary bronchi
The finest partitions, or _____ divide the lung into pulmonary lobules
interlobular septa
alveolar epithelium consists primarily of simple squamous epithelium. The squamous epithelial cells, called ____ _ ____ are ....
Type I cells
unusually thin and delicate
What would happen if alveolar walls didn't have surfactant?
The surface tension would be so high that the alveoli would collapse.
Involves the physical movement of air into and out of the lungs.
Pulmonary ventilation, or breathing
Normal interstitial fluid has a of P02 of ...
...40 mm Hg
...normally has a of PCO2 40 mm
Blood entering the systemic circuit
rest of the oxygen molecules are bound to _____ molecules -specifically, to ___ ___in the center of heme units
hemoglobin ( Hb )
the iron ions
______ is the most important chemical regulator of respiration
C02
An increase in the of arterial blood constitutes _______.
hypercapnia
The inflation reflex ...
prevents overexpansion of the lungs during forced breathing.
___ ____ are located in the smooth muscle tissue around bronchioles and are stimulated by lung expansion.
Stretch receptors
The deflation reflex ...
...inhibits the expiratory centers and stimulates the inspiratory centers when the lungs are deflating.
Refers to the chemical breakdown of food into small organic fragments suitable for absorption by the digestive epithelium
Digestion
double sheets of peritoneal membrane
mesenteries
stabilize the positions of the attached organs and prevent your intestines from becoming entangled during digestive movements or sudden changes in body position.
mesenteries
a mucous membrane consisting of an epithelium, moistened by glandular secretions, and a lamina propria of areolar tissue.
The inner lining, or mucosa , of the digestive tract
The stomach, the small intestine, and almost the entire length of the large intestine have a simple columnar epithelium that
contains goblet cells.
where absorption occurs
large intestine
Contractions in these layers alter the shape of the lumen and move the epithelial pleats and folds.
The Lamina Propria
has large blood vessels and lymphatic vessels.
The submucosa
This submucosal plexus is also called the...
...plexus of Meissner
contains sensory neurons, parasympathetic ganglionic neurons, and sympathetic postganglionic fibers that INNERVATE THE MUCOSA AND SUB-MUCOSA
plexus of Meissner
the myenteric (mi-en-TER-ik) plexus is in the ...
...Muscularis Externa
the myenteric plexus is also called the
plexus of Auerbach
network of parasympathetic ganglia, sensory neurons, interneurons, and sympathetic postganglionic fibers lies SANDWICHED BETWEEN the CIRCULAR AND LONGITUDINAL MUSCLE layers.
the myenteric (mi-en-TER-ik) plexus ( mys , intestine), or plexus of Auerbach
Histological Organization of the Digestive Tract
The Mucosa
The Lamina Propria
The Submucosa
The Muscularis Externa
The Serosa
The muscular layers of the digestive tract consist of
visceral smooth muscle tissue.
waves of muscular contractions that move a bolus , or small oval mass of digestive contents, along the length of the digestive tract
Peristalsis
These movements churn and fragment the bolus, mixing the contents with intestinal secretions.
Segmentation
The mucosae of the cheeks, or lateral walls of the oral cavity, are supported by pads of fat and the ____ muscles.
buccinator
the space between the cheeks (or lips) and the teeth
The vestibule
the passageway between the oral cavity and the oropharynx.
Fauces
The bulk of each tooth consists of a mineralized matrix similar to that of bone. This material, is called...
dentin
dentin, differs from bone in that ...
...it does not contain cells
The pulp cavity receives blood vessels and nerves from
the root canal, a narrow tunnel located at the root , or base, of the tooth.
A layer of _____ covers the dentin of the root, providing protection and firmly anchoring the periodontal ligament.
cementum
The dentin of the crown is covered by a layer of
enamel
blade-shaped teeth located at the front of the mouth
Incisors
useful for clipping or cutting, such as when you nip off the tip of a carrot stick
Incisors
conical, with a sharp ridgeline and a pointed tip
cuspids (KUS-pidz), or canines
They are used for tearing or slashing.
cuspids (KUS-pidz), or canines
very large, flattened crowns with prominent ridges, excel at crushing and grinding
Molars
The ______ a hollow muscular tube with a length of approximately ____ and diameter of ____
Espohagus
25cm
2cm
When your stomach is relaxed (empty), the mucosa is thrown into prominent folds called
rugae
...also secrete hydrochloric acid (HCl)
Parietal cells
These cells secrete pepsinogen (pep-SIN-o-jen), an inactive proenzyme
Chief cells (are most abundant near the base of a gastric gland)
Pepsinogen is converted by the acid in the gastric lumen to ...
pepsin, an active proteolytic (protein-digesting) enzyme
the stomachs of newborn infants (but not of adults) produce _____ also known as _____
rennin
chymosin
(and gastric lipase , enzymes important for the digestion of milk.)
These enteroendocrine cells produce at least seven hormones, most notably, the hormone gastrin
G cells (in the pyloric glands)
What does gastrin do?
stimulates secretion by both parietal and chief cells, as well as contractions of the gastric wall that mix and stir the gastric contents.
the final segment of the small intestine (and longest)
The ileum (3.5m)
Where does the illeum end?
ileocecal valve , a sphincter that controls the flow of materials from the ileum into the cecum of the large intestine.
What are plicae? (or plicae circulares)
series of transverse folds in The intestinal lining
What is the difference between plicae and rugae?
Plicae are permanent, and do not disappear, rugae disappear as the stomach fills. P- greatly increase SA
...transport materials that are unable to enter blood capillaries
Lacteals
When ____ arrives in the duodenum, _____ is released
chyme
secretin
On the liver's anterior surface, the ____ ____ marks the division between the organ's left lobe and the right lobe.
falciform ligament
The liver has ____ lobes
4
the basic functional units of the liver
Liver lobules
The gallbladder has two major functions:
(1) bile storage and
(2) bile modification.
Bile is secreted continuously, but is released into the duodenum only...
...under the stimulation of CCK
The major functions of the large intestine include
(1) the reabsorption of water and the compaction of the intestinal contents into feces, (2) the absorption of important vitamins liberated by bacterial action, and (3) the storage of fecal material prior to defecation.
Three separate longitudinal bands of smooth muscle-called the _____ are on the outer surfaces of the colon just deep to the _____
taeniae coli
serosa
the colon bends sharply to the left at the right colic flexure , or hepatic flexure , which marks the end of the ____ _____ and the beginning of the ___ ____
ascending colon
transverse colon
forms the last 15 cm (6 in.) of the digestive tract
The rectum
Carbohydrate digestion begins ___ ___ ____ by the action of ___ ___ from the ___ and ___ salivary glands.
in the mouth
salivary amylase
parotid and submandibular
the breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid
Glycolysis
In this process, a series of enzymatic steps breaks the six-carbon glucose molecule into ...
...two three-carbon molecules of pyruvic acid.
for each glucose molecule processed, the cell gains ___ molecules of ATP
36
__ from glycolysis, __ from NADH generated in glycolysis, __ from the TCA cycle, and a total of __ from the ETS
2
4
2
28
The synthesis of most other types of lipids, including nonessential fatty acids and steroids, begins with
acetyl-CoA
____ ____ and ____ ____ , both 18-carbon unsaturated fatty acids, cannot be synthesized. They are called ___ ___ ___, because they must be included in your diet.
Linoleic acid
linolenic acid
essential fatty acids
___ ___ ___ ___contain triglycerides manufactured by the liver, plus small amounts of phospholipids and cholesterol.
Very low-density lipoproteins
The primary function of VLDLs is ...
...to transport these triglycerides to peripheral tissues.
lipids are largely cholesterol and phospholipids.
High-Density Lipoproteins (HDLs)
The primary function of HDLs is to transport excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues back to the liver for ...
...storage or excretion in the bile.
it is called "good cholesterol."
Because HDL cholesterol is returning from peripheral tissues and will not cause circulatory problems,
The first step in amino acid catabolism is ....
This process requires a co-enzyme derivative of
removal of the amino group ...
( pyridoxine).
attaches the amino group of an amino acid to a keto acid
Transamination
Transamination converts the keto acid into an amino acid that can enter the cytosol...
...and be used for protein synthesis
the removal of an amino group and a hydrogen atom in a reaction that generates an ammonia molecule or an ammonium ion.
Deamination
Liver cells convert the ammonia to ____ , a relatively harmless water-soluble compound excreted in urine. The urea cycle is the reaction sequence involved in the production of urea.
urea
continues until glycogen accounts for about 5 percent of the total liver weight.
Glycogenesis (glycogen formation)
If excess glucose remains in the bloodstream, hepatocytes (liver cells) use glucose to synthesize triglycerides.
Growing children, athletes, persons recovering from an illness or injury, and pregnant or lactating women actively synthesize
N compounds
Such individuals are in a state of positive nitrogen balance . When excretion exceeds ingestion, a negative nitrogen balance exists.
when exposed to sunlight, your skin can synthesize small amounts of ___ __ and intestinal bacteria produce some ___ ___
vitamin D
Vitamin K