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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Fluent vs Nonfluent aphasias
Fluent Aphasias: (posterior)

Nonfluent: (anterior)
Which aphasia involves the left lateral frontal, pre-rolandic suprasylvian region, usually extending into the periverntricular white matter?
-Infarct much larger than just 44.
-Receptive better than expressive
A lesion limited to Broca's Area does not produce Broca's Aphasia.
TRUE. It only produces a mild dysprosody, mild agraphia, some word-finding pauses and/or mild dysarthria.
Which Aphasia?
-Anterior (frontal) Lesion
-May affect the supplementary motor cortex
-White Matter underneath sup. motor area
-L Frontal lobe ant. and sup. to Broca's (spares Broca's)
-CAN repeat
-supplied by either ant. cer artery or ant. most penetrating branches of MCA
Transcortical Motor Aphasia
-Echolalic, but can't say anything spontaneously
Which aphasia?
-Large lesion, L fronto-parietal-temoral zone of lang.
-Extending from Broca's to Wernicke's to the angular gyrus region and deep into subjacent white matter
-Severe Lang Deficit across all areas
-Supplied by both divisions of MCA
Global Aphasia
-Wipes out WHOLE ZoL
-Tx= Start from very beginning
Mixed Aphasia
-Milder version of Global Aphasia
Which Aphasia?
-Lesions in the post. 1/3 of the sup. temporal Gyrus
-2 variations: Primarily temporal lesion, more posterior lesion
Wernicke's Aphasia
-Expressive better than receptive
-Temporal: word-deaf variant, reading preserved
-Posterior: Difficulty w/ written, less w/ isolated words
Which Aphasia:
-Lesion on Supramarginal Gyrus and underlying whitematter pathways
-Can not repeat
-lesion connects Wernicke's to Broca's
Conduction Aphasia
Which Aphasia:
-Lesion in Angular Gyrus
-Can read, write, talk, but circumvent
Anomic Aphasia
Which aphasia:
-Involve Basal Ganglia
-2 different types: Enfarct Thalamus, Enfarct internal capsule
Subcortical Aphasias
When brain damage is vascualar, and affects written lang only, the lesion is usually in the distribution of the ____.
When lang prob is oral, the lesion is in the ____.
When both spoken and written lang affected, the lesion is in the ____.
Posterior Cerebral Artery,
Middle Cerebral Artery,
Internal Carotid Artery
What are the 4 major arteries of the cerebral hemispheres?
Right Carotid
Left Carotid
Right Vertebral
Left Vertebral
(R & L join to become the single basilar artery)
There are 5 distinct vascular territories that are connected through the Circle of Willis. What are they?
1, 2. Anterior Cerebral Arteries (ACA) (L & R)
3, 4. Middle Cerebral Arteries (MC) (L & R)
5. Posterior Cerebral Arteries (PCA)
How is the Circle of Willis formed?
Formed by the Anterior Communicating artery (AcomA), which links the 2 ACA
-The two ACA which arise together w/ the MCA from the internal carotid artery and the 2 posterior communicating arteries (PcomA) which link the internal carotid artery to the PCA and the basilar artery.
If the patient is aphasic and CAN repeat, the lesion is probably ____ the zone of language.
outside ZoL
-but affected cortical or subcortical areas bordering the lang. zone
-Means "excision within the artery"
-Cut out the carotid arteryand remove clots, etc. from ostructing the artery and flow of blood to the brain
What is a complete or partial occlusion of the arteries where the cells begin to die and an infarct develops with necrosis and loss of tissue bulk?
Ischemic Stroke
-See an inner zone of infarction w/ a surrounding zone of ischemia
-Caused by thrombosis or embolus
What is the most common form of an ischemic stroke (CVA)?
Which CVA is related to artherosclerosis and is the result of stenosis?
What is Stenosis?
A narrowing of the artery due to plaque.
Which CVA breaks off a piece of the thrombus and is released into the bloodstream, occluding a distal artery?
What is a Thrombus?
-When an ulcer develops due to atherosclerosis, the blood stream responds by laying down fibrin mat'l, platelet adhesion, and trapping blood cells called a thrombus
-Thrombus can either occlude the blood vessel (thrombosis), or break apart and be released into the blood stream (embolism)
Which CVA is the result of the rupturing of a blood vessel within the intracranium?
Hemorrhagic stroke
-Can occur in 3 areas:
-Within the brain
-Subdural Space
-50% survival rate
Which CVA is a brief focal cerebral event where the symptoms develop rapidly and last less than 24 hours?
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)

-During the attack, part of the brain becomes ischemic resulting in the clinical symptoms.