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24 Cards in this Set

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Fluent vs Nonfluent aphasias
Fluent Aphasias: (posterior)
-Broca's
-TCM
-Global
-Mixed

Nonfluent: (anterior)
-Wernicke's
-TCS
-Conduction
-Anomic
Which aphasia involves the left lateral frontal, pre-rolandic suprasylvian region, usually extending into the periverntricular white matter?
-
Broca's
-Infarct much larger than just 44.
-Receptive better than expressive
T/F
A lesion limited to Broca's Area does not produce Broca's Aphasia.
TRUE. It only produces a mild dysprosody, mild agraphia, some word-finding pauses and/or mild dysarthria.
Which Aphasia?
-Anterior (frontal) Lesion
-May affect the supplementary motor cortex
-White Matter underneath sup. motor area
-L Frontal lobe ant. and sup. to Broca's (spares Broca's)
-CAN repeat
-supplied by either ant. cer artery or ant. most penetrating branches of MCA
Transcortical Motor Aphasia
-Echolalic, but can't say anything spontaneously
Which aphasia?
-Large lesion, L fronto-parietal-temoral zone of lang.
-Extending from Broca's to Wernicke's to the angular gyrus region and deep into subjacent white matter
-Severe Lang Deficit across all areas
-Supplied by both divisions of MCA
Global Aphasia
-Wipes out WHOLE ZoL
-Tx= Start from very beginning
Mixed Aphasia
-Milder version of Global Aphasia
Which Aphasia?
-Lesions in the post. 1/3 of the sup. temporal Gyrus
-2 variations: Primarily temporal lesion, more posterior lesion
Wernicke's Aphasia
-Expressive better than receptive
-Paraphasias
-Temporal: word-deaf variant, reading preserved
-Posterior: Difficulty w/ written, less w/ isolated words
Which Aphasia:
-Lesion on Supramarginal Gyrus and underlying whitematter pathways
-Can not repeat
-lesion connects Wernicke's to Broca's
Conduction Aphasia
Which Aphasia:
-Lesion in Angular Gyrus
-Posterior
-Can read, write, talk, but circumvent
Anomic Aphasia
Which aphasia:
-Involve Basal Ganglia
-2 different types: Enfarct Thalamus, Enfarct internal capsule
Subcortical Aphasias
When brain damage is vascualar, and affects written lang only, the lesion is usually in the distribution of the ____.
When lang prob is oral, the lesion is in the ____.
When both spoken and written lang affected, the lesion is in the ____.
Posterior Cerebral Artery,
Middle Cerebral Artery,
Internal Carotid Artery
What are the 4 major arteries of the cerebral hemispheres?
Right Carotid
Left Carotid
Right Vertebral
Left Vertebral
(R & L join to become the single basilar artery)
There are 5 distinct vascular territories that are connected through the Circle of Willis. What are they?
1, 2. Anterior Cerebral Arteries (ACA) (L & R)
3, 4. Middle Cerebral Arteries (MC) (L & R)
5. Posterior Cerebral Arteries (PCA)
How is the Circle of Willis formed?
Formed by the Anterior Communicating artery (AcomA), which links the 2 ACA
-The two ACA which arise together w/ the MCA from the internal carotid artery and the 2 posterior communicating arteries (PcomA) which link the internal carotid artery to the PCA and the basilar artery.
If the patient is aphasic and CAN repeat, the lesion is probably ____ the zone of language.
outside ZoL
-but affected cortical or subcortical areas bordering the lang. zone
Endarterectomy
-Means "excision within the artery"
-Cut out the carotid arteryand remove clots, etc. from ostructing the artery and flow of blood to the brain
What is a complete or partial occlusion of the arteries where the cells begin to die and an infarct develops with necrosis and loss of tissue bulk?
Ischemic Stroke
-See an inner zone of infarction w/ a surrounding zone of ischemia
-Caused by thrombosis or embolus
-CVA
What is the most common form of an ischemic stroke (CVA)?
Thrombosis
Which CVA is related to artherosclerosis and is the result of stenosis?
Thrombosis
What is Stenosis?
A narrowing of the artery due to plaque.
Which CVA breaks off a piece of the thrombus and is released into the bloodstream, occluding a distal artery?
Embolism
What is a Thrombus?
-When an ulcer develops due to atherosclerosis, the blood stream responds by laying down fibrin mat'l, platelet adhesion, and trapping blood cells called a thrombus
-Thrombus can either occlude the blood vessel (thrombosis), or break apart and be released into the blood stream (embolism)
Which CVA is the result of the rupturing of a blood vessel within the intracranium?
Hemorrhagic stroke
-Can occur in 3 areas:
-Within the brain
-Subaracnoid
-Subdural Space
-50% survival rate
Which CVA is a brief focal cerebral event where the symptoms develop rapidly and last less than 24 hours?
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)

-During the attack, part of the brain becomes ischemic resulting in the clinical symptoms.