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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the subdivisions of the frontal lobe and what are they associated with?
Orbitofrontal: Social Bx, Personality
Medial Frontal: Arousal, Motivation
T/F
The frontal lobe has many connections with subcortical areas, therefore damage to the subcortical areas may also present similar clinical symptoms.
True
What is the ability to maintain a coherent line of thought or action?
Attention
What is the degree of wakefulness or level of consciousness?
Arousal
What are the 3 mental operations involved in moving attention from one location to another?
1. Disengagement of attn from its current focus (parietal lobe engagement)
2. Moving attn to another location (midbrain engagement)
3. Engaging attn at that location (frontal-diencephalon system)
What are the 5 models of attention?
1. Focused
2. Sustained
3. Divided
4. Selective
5. Alternating
What is the ability to respond simultaneously to multiple tasks or single tasks with multiple task demands?
Divided attention (multi-tasking)
-Associated with frontal lobes
What is a localized bx response to internal sensations (pain, temp, thirst, hunger, discomfort) and/or external sensations (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, gustatory, olfactory)?
Focused attn
-lowest form of attn
What is the ability to shift one's attn back and forth b/t tasks or from one task to the next?
Alternating attn
-associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (bilaterally)
What is selective attention?
The ability to maintain a behavioral response to an activity in the face of distracting internal (irrelevant thoughts) or external stimuli. One has to selectively attend to relevant info and inhibit irrelevant info.
-Right frontal lobe particularly involved.
-Able to tune out distractions
What is sustained attention?
The ability to maintain a consistent behavioral response during a continuous activity that is specifically related to that activity.
-Can you stay on task for a period of time?
Events occur slowly and vigilance is required.
Associated particularly with the right prefrontal cortex.
What kind of negative affects occur with older adult's attention?
-Fatiguing elements (extended vigiliance)
-Increasing memory demands
-Task complexity
-Time pressure
-Not personally relevant
What is memory?
Stored knowledge and the process of manipulating and retrieving knowledge.
What is the expression of memory influenced by?
-Attention
-Motivation
-Rehearsal
-Fatigue and other factors
What plays an active role in concurrent info processing and storage activities, and involves large bilateral portions of the dorsolateral frontal cortex?
Working Memory (Short-term memory)
-Ability to hear something, temporarily hold it, retrieve it, and respond.
What is responsible for the selection and execution of strategies for maintaining and shifting attention, coordinating and manipulating information?
The Central Executive System
-Encode, consolodate, retrieve
What are the two "Slave Systems" of the Central Executive System?
1. Verbal System
2. Spatial Sketchpad
What is a phonological loop that acts as a brief acoustic store with an articulatory rehearsal mechanism?
The Verbal System
What is the Spatial Sketchpad?
Stores and manipulates nonverbal spatial representations.
When does working memory begin to decline and what are some hypotheses why?
-Declines noted > 70 yr
-Hypotheses:
-Change in speed of cognitive processing
-Can't inhibit irrelevant info, therefore more susceptible to interference]
-Ineffective association techniques such as visual imagery and sentence formation
***
What are the two types of Long Term Memory?
Declarative (Explicit) Memory
Procedural (Implicit) Memory
What is Declarative Memory?
-Memory you DECLARE
-Ability to consciously recollect facts, names or events when needed
-Conscious Learning (i.e., remembering someone's name)
-Includes episodic memory, concepts (semantic) memory and word (lexical) memory
***
What type of long term memory is largely the hippocampus?
Declarative Memory
***
What type of long term memory is largely the Basal Ganglia?
Procedural Memory
What happens to speech when episodic memory is poor?
-Can't remember what they have just done
-Difficulty remaining on topic
-Fragmented Speech
-Lack of cohesion, vague
What is Episodic Memory?
-Factual knowledge of events or episodes
-Recollection of conscious experiences from personal past
-Involves both recall and recognition
-Hippocampus and projections to temporal and frontal lobes
With Parkinson's Disease, there is a _______ Memory deficit, but ______ Memory still in tact.
With Alzheimer's Disease, the _____ Memory is still in tact, but there is a deficit with _____ Memory.
(Both sentences)
Procedural, Declarative
Why do you remember emotional events more?
Explicit (Declarative) memory goes from the hippocampus and ends at the amigdala, which deals with emotion.
What is Concepts (Semantic) Memory?
-Sum total of our knowledge (facts about the world, meaning of words and concepts)

-Structures surrounding the hippocampus are critical for new semantic memory
-storage appears to involve the lateral temporal lobes in the form of a distributed network (Strength of Connections)
What happens to speech when there is impaired conceptual memory?
-Speech is empty: lack of content words
-Bizarre content
-Poor understanding
What happens to speech when your memory for wods is impaired?
Dysnomia
-Word finding problems
-Decreased Vocabulary
-Redundant words
What type of long term memory is contained within learned skills or modifiable cognitive operations?
Procedural (Implicit) Memory
What is remote memory?
-Memory of our distant past
-Reminiscence bump: Memories of our teen years and early adult years seem to be most resilient to decay
What is proactive interference?
What you've learned before interferes with what you're trying to remember now
What is Retroactive interference?
Info you've just learned interferes with ability to remember previous info
Memory: ________, rather than ________ is most effected by age.
Retrieval, encoding (storage)
What is the ability to recognize and monitor one's own memory capabilities and effectiveness?
Metamemory

-Frequently impaired with frontal lobe injury
What is Retrospective memory?
Ability to remember past events
What is the ability to remember upcoming events?
Prospective Memory

-people with this impairment rely on prosthetic systems like appt books, reminders from others, or electronic reminder systems
What are the memory processes? (x3)
-Encoding: organization or manipulation of incoming info
-Consolidation: process whereby a memory is transferred for later retrieval, resistant to disruption
-Retrieval, recollection, recall: Ability to access from long term storage
When forming memory, which is the active organization or manipulation of incoming information?
Encoding (Acquisition)
-Taking notes, underlining, visualizing, relating to situations
-Can be impaired with depression, ADDs
What type of memories typically are the last to be affected by brain damage?
Procedural memories
-Pt's with otherwise poor memory are able to perform previously learned routine activities.
Why does a frontal lobe injury result in poor recall?
Encodes very passively
What is memory consolidation?
-Can mean the process whereby a memory is transferred for later retrieval
-Can mean the process by which memory becomes resistant to disruption by an amnesic agent
-Can continue for a long time
-Has no fixed lifetime
-Medial temporal system is less involved or not involved
What is executive function?
-Allows one to operate in a regulates fashion beyond that of instinct, habit, or impulse
-The ability to project action into internal or external environments
->Ability to act above and beyond basic instincts
->Ability to have goal-directed bx and figure out steps to accomplish that goal (or re-work one's strategy if not succeeding)
What is a person like if their executive functioning is impaired?
-Concrete thinker
-Egocentric
-Impulsive
-Child-like
-Volatile
-Socially inappropriate
-Aggressive
-Impatient
-Nonreflective
-Nonstrategic
-Disorganized
-Inattentive
-Inflexible
What is Rehearsal?
Repetition to facilitate recall
***
Operationally, what is executive function?
-Ability to know self strengths and limitationsa
-Ability to set realistic goals
-Ability to plan and organize bx designed to achieve the goals
-Ability to initiate bx toward achieving goals and inhibit bx incompatible with achieving goals (Brain Dmged ppl can't do this)
-Ability to monitor and evaluate performance
-Ability to flexibly revise plans and strategically solve problems in the event of difficulty and failure
Where in the brain is executive function carried out?
-Prefrontal tissue (dorsolateral prefrontal)
-Limbic Regions
-Interconnections b/t these areas
What are the domains in linguistic/cognitive evaluation and therapy?
-Attention and Concentration Skills
-Visuospatial Skills
-Memory Tasks
-Executive Fxning
-Orientation to person, place, time
-Reasoning, judgment, problem solving