Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

190 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
compound bilinguals
l1 and l2 acquired in the same context. the two systems merge. not function as a monolingual in either community
coordinate bilinguals
L1 and L2 acquired in separate contexts. each language is complete in it
subordinate bilinguals
L2 acquisition based on L1. only one system develops. function as monolingual only in L1. bypical of beginning L2 learners.
late acquisition
L2 learned between 3 years and puberty
positive social status
negative social status
"input switch" theory
bilinguals can deactivate one language while using the other. experiment - written word in one language does not activate words in the other language with the same meaning.
parallel activation
both langauges are activated even when bilinguals are using one langauge.
study for serial activation
12 russian/english late bilinguals. eye movements monitored while listening in monolingual situation. they had more looks to interlingual distractor compared to control distractor. evidence that bilingual listeners do not deactivate irrelevant lexicon in a monolingual mode.
bilingual word recognition models.
1. langauge selective access, independent lexicons. 2. langauge selective acccess, integrated lexicon. 3. langauge non-selective access, independent lexicon. 4. langauge non selective access, integrated lexicon
orthographic neighborhood effect
word identification is sensitive to the number of orthographic neighbors and frequency of such orthographically similar words. ex. tolk, talk. study w/ duch/english bilinguals - target word recognition significantly influenced by the number of orthographic neighbors in the non-target language. evidence for non-selective access to an integrated lexicon.
monolingual langauge mode
bilingual speaker adopts langauge of monolingual interlocutor and deactivates other language. the deactivation is rarely complete. sometimes interference occurs. interference may be static --> constant trace of other langauge. dynamic --> use of L2 is disrupted by the activation of L1 items.
bilingual langauge mode
use of both langauges in conversations with other bilinguals. bilingual chooses a base language and then intermixes the other langauge when needed. two types of intermixing: code switching - complete shift at sentence level. code mixing -- interjecting single words or phrase of one language when speaking another.
evidence that L1 = L2 area
- studies showed activation of same reachions in LH for both langagues for both early and late.
evidence that L1 does not equal L2 area
when french/english bilinguals were listening to stories L1 and L2 were activated in different areas
Age of acquisition effects
1. similar activation areas in early bilinguals. 2. different activation patterns in broca's area for late bilinguals.
proficiency effects for bilinguals
low proficiency late bilinguals show that L1 engages more temporal cortex than L2. high proficiency late bilinguals, on the other hand, showed no difference.
parallel impairment
both langaugaes impaired in same manner to same degree
differential impairment
one langague impaired more than other
differential aphasia
different types of aphasia in different langauges
selective aphasia
only one langaue is affected and other is fine
use of wrogn language when speaking to monolinguals, may occur at any level of linguistic structure.
parallel recovery
languages improve at the same rate and to the same degree, relative to premorbid levels
differential recovery
pattern of recovery is different for different langauges
successive recovery
one language begins to recover after the other
antagonistic recovery
as one lang. recovers the other decays.
selective recovery
only one lang. recovers
treatment in bilingual aphasia
1. treating one lang often improves performance in other languages. 2. many studies find that the treated language may improve more than the untreated one 3. training the less dominant lang MAY be nore beneficial in facilitated crosslinguistic generalization than training more proficient lang in an unbalanced bilingual
the phrasal categories which must co-occur with a verb in a sentence ex. NP V, NP V NP, NP V NP PP
NP V - the woman slept
NP V NP - the woman fixed the computer
NP V NP PP/NP - the woman put the book on the shelf
thematic roles
agent, experiencer, theme, goal, instrument
grammatical roles __ equal thematic roles
do not. alana gave the flapjack to nolan. alana - agent, flapjack - theme, nolan - goal. alana - subject, flapjack - direct object, to nolan - PP
argument structure
the set of participants entailed by a verb. up to three arguments. agent
(x), theme(y), goal(z)
one artument verbs
1. intransitive - john sleeps (external argument) 2. unaccusative - the snow melts (internal argument)
two argument verbs
1. transitive - john fixed the car 2. psych verbs (experiencer verbs) - the children admired the clown.
dative verbs
alternating and non-alternating: 1. john put the book on the table. 2. john sent the letter to his mother - john sent his mother the letter.
cross modal lexical decision
Subjects had to perform a complex secondary
task both in the immediate vicinity of the verb and also at a point well past the
verb while listening to sentences for meaning. Reaction times to this secondary
task show that both normal controls and agrammatic Broca’s aphasic subjects
activate multiple argument structure possibilities for a verb in the vicinity of the
verb, yet at a point downstream from the verb such effects disappear. REACtion times to 3 argument verbs are slower than reaction times to two argument verbs.
john fixed the car in the garage
in the garage is an adjunct. for processing. argument is less time than adjunct in that one study.
all thematic possiblities are ____ when a verb is encountered
there is ___ activation for 2 argument verbs
noncanonical is _____ than cononical
wh- movement
who did the girl chase___?
NP movement
the boy was chased ____ by the girl. filler = the boy . gap =___
Which doctor did the supervisor ^1 call ^2 to ....?
normals: RT faster for related words at point 2 ---brocas: no RT difference between points 1 and 2
global (syntactic) ambiguity
1. visiting relatives can be a pain 2. the lady hit the man with a book.
local (temporary) ambiguity - garden path sentences
The horse raced past the barn fell
sentence parsing strategies (garden path model)
syntactic analysis precedes semantic analysis. minimal attachment - attach incoming unit to the phrase being constructed, using the fewest possible nodes.... Late closure - incoming material is added to the clause or phrase currently being processed. add to curent phrase, don't close it.
prefer ___ and ____ structures
simple and recent
garden path model
minimal attachment and late closure
does sentence length increase comprehension difficulty?
_______ affects processing more than length
working memory in sentence comp. right branching and center imbedding
1. the horse kicked the dog (that chased the cat) 2. the cat (that chased the dog) kicked the horse. center imbedding are harder. distance between filler and gap.
sentence matching task
you can show that people assign structure to sentences and assign meaning based on that structure, even if there is no structure at all. 1. grammatical and meaningful 2. grammatical and nonsense 3. ungrammatical but meaning can be extracted 4. ungrammatical nonsense
non-syntactic processing
irrecversible sentences easier than reversible. 1. the man ate the cake. 2. the cake was eaten by the man 3. the man was eaten by the cake XXX
slow rise time
system slow to "turn on". miss initial portion of incoming message. use of carrier phrases help. longer utterances better than shorter
noise build up
progressive fatigue of input system. respond to initial input, but fade out over time. use of frequent pauses help
retention deficit
limitation in the amount of information that the system can process. performance deteriorates at the same point in all messages. use of chunking helps
intermittent auditory imperception
- system fades in and out randomly. there is no easy way to combat this.
factors affecting sentence comprehension in aphasia
- word meaning knowledge - grammatical category - length - speech rate - context
rate and redundancy
1. the apple is good (normal rate) 2. the apple is good (slow rate) 3. the apple is good to eat (enhanced context, normal rate) ----- comp best in 2 and 3
factors affecting sentence comp.
stress and intonation, and semantic reversibility --- reversibles are more difficult!!! 1. the girl kissed the boy. 2. the boy kicked the ball
passives are easier if they are ____
caramazza and zurif results
1. broca's and conduction aphasic patients cannot use syntactic information. they rely on non-syntactic strategies.
active, passive, s cleft, o cleft
actives are easier than passives, s cleft easier than o cleft
subject cleft
it was the elephant that hit the monkey
o cleft
it was the elephant that the monkey hit
arguments and thematic roles on complexity
1. the fewer number of arguments, thematic roles is easier 2. the fewer number of main berbs the easier.
caramazza and surif postulate that there will be similar patterns in comp and production because phrase structure rules are "broken" but...
counter evidence. individ patients show deficits in comp OR production
trace deletion hypothesis
- selective sentence comprehension deficit. - traces are underspcified in the s structure. syntactic knowledge for movement is MISSING. but this probably isn't right
(selective) syntactic accounts
counter evidence for trace deletion. 1. the girl was kissed ____ by the boy. 2. the girl was kissed ____ .................. TDH predicts at chance performance on full passives 1, below chance performance on truncated passives(2). BUT there is equivalent performance - patients were just as good/bad for both.
Slowed processing account
- proposes disorder of temporal synchrony. aphasic individs assign the same structure to sentences as controls but do so slowly.
counter evidence to slowed processing acount - eyetracking wh questions
who did the boy kiss __ at school? there was a strong preference to look at the person who got kissed at the gap site for both aphasic and control participants. correct fast processing of wh movement! only difference between groups was after gap - competition from distractor (agent) for aphasics.
mappind deficit hypothisis
proposed deficit in mapping thematic roles onto the syntax. grammaticality judgement unimpaired. syntactic representations intact
argument linking hypotheiss
proposed deficit in coordinating semantic and syntactic linking - syntactic structure is intact, but patients have difficulty assigning an interpretation to the structure.
counter evidence for the last 2
broca's aphasic patients exhibited intact judgements for argument - structure violations, but impaired judgements for sentences with movement. 1. it seems likely that john will win (movement) 2. the boy put the book (violation)
working memory limitations
positive correlation between memory span and comp. of complex sentences in both normal and aphasic patietns. low memory = poor comp.
grammatical incoding levels
1. message 2. functional processing 3. positional processing 4. phonological encoding
what happens at the message level
macroplanning - deciding what to say .... microplanning - propositional form of message
what happens at the functional level
1. lemma activation - lexical selection of open class items. information associated with lemmas is accessed. 1. syntactic information - word class and subcat phrame 2. function assignment - grammatical roles, thematic roles
what happens at the positional level?
1. phrase structure building - creation of sentence phrame 2. free and bound morphemes accessed 3. case assignment - "I" vs "me" 4. phonological form of items accessed
errors suggesting functional level processing
1. semantic errors. she served cauliflower --> she served broccoli. 2. blending errors "a my offered coffee" a man (or guy) offered coffee - two lexical items blended together, sugessts flawed lexical selection
errors suggesting positional level processing
1. non-reversal word order errors - "did you stay up late very last night?" - words erroneously placed within the sentence frame. 2. stranding errors 3. lexeme errors
stranding errors
they were turking talkish - misattachment of grammatical morphemes to open class items. adjacent content words often affected - evidence that inflectional morphemes are features of the sentece frame.
lexeme ererors
he picked up the penstil
non-reversal word order errors
he is planting the garden in the flowers.
role reversal errors
the pupil gave her an A+ --> she gave the pupil an A+ -- functional or positional???/ 1. erroneous function assignment and or/ misordering of elements in the sentence form.
signs of agrammatism
1. reduced rate 2. grammatically ill-formed sentences 3. word order errors - misordering of arguments in a sentence string 4. reduced syntactic complexity
functional category errors for aphasics
1. omission of function words (auxiliaries, determiners, prepositions, complementizer) 2. omission or substitution of bound morphemes - verb inflection particularly vulnerable
open class deficit patterns in aphasics
1. reduced production of verbs - hierarchy of verb difficulty based on argument structure
production of verbs by type for aphasics
easiest to hardest. 1. intransitive 2. transitive 3. dative
PrAD subjects
have no verb argument structure hierarchy. semantically simple verbs are easier than complex verbs
unergatives and unaccusatives for aphasics
unergative is easier than unaccusative for aphasics because unaccusative has movement. 1. the man (agent) sleeps 2. the snowman (theme) melts Ti
argument structure complexity hypothesis
verbs with complex argument structure are more difficult for agrammatic aphasic individuals to produce as compared to those with less complex argument structure entries 1. when the number of arguments increases, production difficulty increases. 2. when argument structure triggers movement operations, difficulty increases
other production patterns of agrammatic aphasics
1. produce primarily agents and themes 2. produce few goals 3. adjuncts are more difficult than arguments
economy of effort theory of agrammatism
1. focused on motoric restraints 2. over-reliance on content words considered conscious attempt to maximize the amount of information with the fewest words 3. redundant elements deleted from sentences 4. however there is contrary evidence - patients produced less information overall (problem not just with economy)
adaptation theory of agrammatism
1. output reflects conscious or unconscious adaptation to damage 2. idea is that patitent uses simplest productions (little or nothing to do with language structure)
tree pruning hypothesis for agrammatism
- everything above the line in the tree is impaired. everything below line in tree is intact "Tree Pruning Hypothesis, according to which the highest nodes of the syntactic tree, which are required for Wh questions in Hebrew, Arabic, and English and for yes/no questions in English, are impaired or inaccessible in agrammatism."
sentence production deficit associated with fluent aphasia. 1. semantically empty speech 2. substitution of grammatical morphemes 3. phonological and neologistic paraphasias
theories of paragrammatism
1. poor comprehension/ reduced feedback 2. reduced inhibition
there was a shift in focus of healthcare in the 20th century from
from cure to functional management of the condition
development of the ICIDH ( international classification of impairments, disabilities and handicap)
need to measure the consequences of health conditions -- classification of diablements which groups consequences associated with health conditions.
disablement covers three dimentions
1. impairment -- body structures or function, impairment of the brain or brain structures 2. disabilities -- problems in daily life activities, communication 3. handicap -- affects participation in society
goals of assessment
1. etiologic goals - presence or absence of aphasia 2. cognitive, linguistic and pragmatic goals - strengths and weaknesses 3. treatment goals - determination of candidacy for and prognosis in treatment
scope of the assessment process
before, during and after rehab process. testing that is RELIABLE, SENSITIVE, VALID
1. content validity - does test measure all of the behaviors that it should measure 2. construct validity - does test relate to other measures of the same construct? 3. sensitivity - does it accurately predict whether a patient is aphasic?
test-retest reliability
general procedures in assessment
1. case history 2. initial impressions 3. neuropsychological assessment 4. aphasia tests 4. diagnostic decisions
bedside evaluations
1. swiftly evaluate language abilities before a more thorough examinatino. they are NOT designed to replace longer evals.
ALPS (aphasia language performance scales)
1. 20-30 minutes 2. examiner can use objects in pockets and patient's room 3. 10 items of increasing difficulty in 4 modalities
why standard testing?
to measure progress reliably
how many comprehensive aphasia tests in canada and US?
Five 1. MTDDA 2. PICA 3. WAB 4. BDAE 5. ADP
MTDDA (minnesota test for differential diagnosis of aphasia)
1. oldest and most comprehensive 2. based on aphasia as a unidimentional multimodal impairment 3. all modalities tested and rating in each 4. aphasia type assigned by impairment pattern (simple aphasia, aphasia with visual involvement etc. ) 5. provides prognostic capabilities. 6. normative data on small sample size. 7. 4-6 hours
PICA (Porch Index of Communicative Ability)
1. highly standardized test 2. verbal, gestural, and writing subtests 3. 40 hours or training for scoring 4. strong reliability and standardization but doesn't reflect natural communication abilities. takes 1 hour
which tests diagnose aphasia syndromes?
1. BDAE 2. WAB 3. ADP
BDAE (Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination)
1. provide comprehensive range of communicative abilities and classifies aphasia type 2. four sections focusing on lang modality 3. classification of aphasia into syndromes according to symptoms 4. normative data 5. lack of summary scores makes difficult to compare with other tests
WAB (Western Aphasia Bettery)
1. classifies aphasia subtypes and rates severity 2. tests auditory comp, spoken expression, reading and writing 3. aphasia quotient, lang q, performance q, cortical q
WAB picture vs. BDAE picture
WAB picture elicited more enumeration than BDAE picture and information was produced at a slower rate in response to WAB pic.
ADP (Aphasia Diagnostic Profiles)
1. nine subtests (speaking, listening, reading, writing, gestural) 2. id aphasia type, severity profile, id patient's strongest response modality - helps guide therapy, error profiles, behavioral profile 2. 40-45 minutes.
areas of supplemental testing
1. lexical-semantic processes (production, comp) 2. morphological and syntactic processes 3. discourse level 4. reading comp 5. narrative sample
boston naming test
detects mild word finding impairments. confrontation naming. analyzes error types. 1. can pick up perceverations, visual perception problems 2. does not consider semantic class, grammatical class, word frequency 3. does not test verbs 4. doesn't have good info on how to administer
TAWF (test of adolescent and adult word finding)
well standardized. has naming of nouns and verbs
An object and action naming battery
1. tests both nouns and verbs 2. items controlled for length, frequenncy, age of acquisition, visual complexity 3. not well standardized 4. not controlled for verb type
Pyramids and Palm Trees
To determine if patient has semantic or modality specific impairment. 3 pictures (pyramids, pine tree, or palm tree). no normative data
The token test
Tests deficits in auditory comprehension. length and complex syntax. can detect mild comprehension impairments. can detect changes in comp over time. does NOT consider shape and color deficit. the revised one is too lengthy
Psycholinguistic assessment of language performance (PALPA)
1. based on ellis and young model 2. auditory processing, picture and word semantics, reading and spelling 3. NOT well standardized 3. not controlled for semantic class or grammatical class
Northwestern Naming Battery
based on ellis and young model of processing. does NOT test reading and writing. Nouns and verb naming. nouns by semantic category, verbs by argument structure. tests word comp, repitition, semantic association. 40 min.
The Verb and sentence test (VAST)
tests verbs (comp, production, morphology) sentences (comp, grammaticality judgements, sentence production). not well standardized.
assessment of verbal morphology - distinguishes regular and irregular verbs. analyze error patterns.
Philadelphia comprehension battery for aphasia (PCBA)
tests lexical AND syntactic comp. not standardized.
Northwestern assessment of verbs and sentences
1. test verb by type, test sentence by type, 2. verb comp, verb naming, argument structure production, sentence priming, sentence comp
The Reporter's test
examiner touches/moves tokens and asks subject to tell what he/she did
Story completion test
"my friend comes in, I want him to sit down, so I say to him: what?" Seven structures tested, consideres complexity of structures tested. no standardization
Analysis of aphasic langague samples
indepth method developed explicitly for coding aphasic lang samples. uses cinderella story as basis. does not consider verbs by type. does not consider sentence type or complexity
Northwestern narrative language sample analysis
uses cinderella story as basis . important clinical outcome measures. open class - closed class ratio. noun - verb ratio. complex-simple sentence ratio. proportion of verb with correct argument structure.
Discourse Comprehension Test (DCT)
examines comprehension of test. does not consider syntactic complexity in stories. all use simple sentence structure. good - reliability and validity, evaluates slow rise time and noise buildup.
The reading comprehension battery for aphasia
single word comp, functional reading, synonyms, sentence comp, paragraph reading. minimal validity and reliability. can do well based on general knowledge. real words vs. nonwords not addressed!!
functional assessment
1. measurement of activities/ limitations 2. mreasures basic communication 3. estimates ability to communicate in the natural environment 4. quick anad easy to administer
communicative effectiveness index
rated by caregivers. social needs, life skills, basic needs, health threts. strong reliability
ASHA functional assessment of communication skills (FACS)
focuses on evaluating the disability rather than the impairment. social communication, communication of basic needs, reading writing, daily planning. well standardized. 20 min.
Communicative abilities of daily living (CALD2)
first direct measure of communicative disability. examines production, comp, comp of cues from environment, use.
ASHA quality of communication life scale
aphasic individuals' own perspective. impact on relationships, interactions, social, work activities.
objectives of aphasia treatment
1. restoration - improve access, restore "normal" language processing, recruits neural tissue that is predisposed to support language 2. compensation - alternative methods - recruit neuroal tissue outside of language system 3. both approaches - facilitate functional use of language
1. does treatment work? does one treatment work better than another? in what ways does treatment alter behavior?
when should you begin treatment?
1. begin after chronic aphasic impairment becomes evident - but there might be adverse psychological reaction to intensive therapy during acute stage 2. begin as soon as the patient is able to take notice of what is going on and is able to cooperate - might be most effective when brain is adjusting to spont. recov.
treated individuals improved ____ than untreated individuals
improvement was greatest when treatment was begun in the ____ stage
_______ treatment, greater improvement
more intense. 2 hrs a week should be minimum
does time post onset make a difference in chronic patients?
no sig differences in response to treatemnt were found between groups of patients according to times postonset.
treatment for anomia
effect on treatment for anomia depends more on number of treated items than on number of repititions per item.
intense therapy over a _____ amount of time has strongest improvement
short. (total length of tx inversely correlated to improvement. total number of hours sig correlated with improvement.)
single subject controlled experimental design requirements.
1. definition of variables. 2. description of study participants 3. reliability of measurement 4. internal validity
_________ is the ultimate goal of treatment
stimulus generalization
stim can change
response generalization
response generalizes to other things
what items should be trained
start bid. the complexity account of treatment efficacy (CATE) training complex structures results in generalization to less complex structures when untreated structures encompass processes relevant to treated ones.
principles of aphasia treatment
focus intervention on patient deficits. use WHO framework - impairment goals, functional goals 2. use adult-like materials 3. start big 4. involve family and members of rehab team
training object clefts...
generalized to untrained who questions
training who questions
did not generalize to untrained object clefts.
object clefts are ____ difficult than wh-questions
behavioral approach
premise: language is lost. treatment uses basic behavioral principles. task decomposition, gradually increasing difficulty level, controlled environment. modeling, shaping, stimulus fading, reinforcement
Stimulus fading
1. here is a violin. say violin 2. here is a violin - what is it? 3. what is it? its a v- 4. what is it?
critique of behvioral approach
1. emphasis on HOW to train not WHAT to train. 2. view aphasia as a loss of language 3. principles can be used regardless of theory 4. reorganization 5. impairment level 6. stimulus generalization
Stimulation approach
language is not lost, problem with access to language. goal is to stimulate disrupted processes to act maximally. treatment - intensive auditory stimulation. 2. emphasis on stimulus (rate length, loudness) 3. every stim should elicit a response 4. elicit as many responses as possible 5. provide cues rather than correction for failed response 6. gradually increase complexity.
critique of stimulation approach
emphasis on HOW not WHAT to train. approach is vague. research does not support it. (no difference in naming regardless of repitition condition) Restoration, training impairment, stim generalizatoin
Helm Elicited Language Program for Syntax Stimulation (HELPSS)
1. sentence presented in story format, patient produces repitition 2. patient completes story using target sentence, no model. premise: agrammatism is a disorder of retrieval . intense stimulation for improved production - goes from easy to difficult.
Critique of HELPSS
heigherarchy does not go from syntactically easy to difficult. successful for improving trained sentence types but no generalization across sentences.
cognitive neuropsychological approach
premise: interacting language models, can be fractionated. treatment focuses on improving the language processing system. use model to guide what to train. use what is known about normal langauge processing to guide treatemnt itself. (semantic class, typicality, levels of production).
model-driven tratment of sentence deficits: mapping therapy
train patient to "map" semantics onto a sentence. train thematic roles. uses active written sentences. "susan drinks the soda" - patient dientifies verb, subject, object.
critique of cognitive neuropsychological approach
emphasis on WHAT to train but not WHAT stimuli to train. does not address HOW to treat. data availabe to support approach.
verb as core
train everything about verb. who, what, wehn why, etc.
verb argument structure training
emphasis placed on verb selection. based on argument structure, complexity considered. examines generalization. predicted across verb types. from more to less complex verbs. put words in order of agent action theme goal.
treatment of underlying forms TUF
focused on complex sentence comprehension and production. linguistically controlled for verb and sentence type. predicts generalization to linguistically related structures . subject raising --> passives.
wh movement and np movement?
Results showed generalization patterns constrained to type of movement; training wh-movement structures resulted in generalized production of untrained Wh-movement structures without influencing production of NP-movement structures. Similarly, training of NP-movement structures resulted in generalization only to other sentence types also relying on NP-movement. Aspects of sentence production in narrative contexts also was improved with treatment. These data indicate that movement to an argument (A) position as in NP-movement is distinct from movement to a non-argument (A-bar) position, required in Wh-movement. That is, the site where movement terminates in the s-structure of noncanonical sentences --i.e., the 'head of the chain' -- influences sentence production. These findings show that linguistic properties of sentences influence sentence production breakdown and recovery in aphasia and provide a method for lawful predictions.
gap-filling in aphasia. the girl put on a shirt that her mother picked ___ for her. the girl put on a shirt that her mother fried ____ for her. pressed a button when sentence began to sound odd.
listened to sentences and pressed a button
when the sentences ‘‘stopped making sense.’’ Critical sentences contained an anomaly in object relative clauses or conjoined clauses.
Results showed that both young normals and aphasic participants were able to reject anomalous sentences of both types. In addition,
both groups showed evidence of filler-gap resolution on-line. Importantly, however, there was evidence of a treatment effect
for the aphasic patients: those who received treatment showed better performance than those who had not. Treated patients were
more successful than the untreated patients in detecting the anomaly in filler-gap conditions, rejecting the anomalous filler-gap
sentences reliably more often than the non-anomalous ones, like the young normals.These results indicate that individuals with agrammatic aphasia
appear to retain some gap-filling capacity and that treatment can improve their ability to make use of this capacity.
Treatment of underlying forms functional categories (TUF funcat)
complimentizers (if, whether, that) are higher up on the gree than morphology (tense, agreemnet) . the further up the tree the more impaired.
generalization predicted by tree pruning
if you train further up the tree it generalizes down the tree.
C, T or AGR
C T or AGR may be underspecified. underspecified nodes cannot project higher. everything above line is impaired.
CP, TP, AgrP
CP, complimentizer - if that whether. TP tense phrase - tense Agreement - /s/ - it goes in that order from most complex down.
verb inflection treatment
thematic role training, grammatical encoding - past, tense/agreement marking, grammatical sentence production. complimentizer treatment They see that the boy is painting the mother. results - improved on complimentizers, verb inflection, all grammatical morphemes.
cognitive approach
premise - language is mediated by other cognitive processes, attention, memory, resource allocation. treatment focuses on attention, memory, problem solving.
right hemisphere mediation
premise - minor hemisphere has linguistic, visual spacial, affective prosodic , music ability. treatment - use right brain abilities to mediate communication. approaches - MIT.
critique of MIT
little data, method not replicable. no reliability.
pragmatic/ functional approach
premis - communication in real life situations should be the focus of treatment. goal - living with aphasia. treatment - improved communication by emphasizing pragmatic funtion of langauge. functional goals.
promoting aphasics communication effectiveness
emphasis on communication exchange. exchange new information. uses barrier tasks. focus on content, not form of message
response elaboration training
goal - increase length and information content of responses. patients encouraged to elaborate on what they are reminded of when responding to stimuli. produces, increased number of content words per picture. increases variety of responses to same stimulus. moderate generalization.
based on native american hand talk. developed to aid communication among native american indian tribes. iconic signs. -- highly transparent signs, no grammar. easily learned and highly recognizable.
gesture training effects
gesture alone - no change in verbal production. gesture plus verbal - improves both gestural and verbal output.
life participation approach
consumer driven. focused on immediate and long term life goals. focus on re-engagement in life.