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60 Cards in this Set

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the person directly holding an elective office that is seeking office again
incumbent
the alleged tendency of candidates to win more votes in election because of the presence at the top of the ticket of a better-known candidate such as the president
coattails
a committee set up by a corporation, labor union, or interest group that raises and spends campaign money from voluntary donations
political action committee
What is a PAC?
political action committee
drawing the boundaries of legislative districts so that they are unequal in population
malapportionment
What term is related to the phrase "one man one vote"
malapportionment
drawing the boundaries of legislative districts in bizarre or unusual shapes to favor one party
gerrymandering
an increase in the votes congressional candidates usually get when they first run for reelection
sophomore surge
an issue about which the public is divided and rival candidates or political parties adopt different policy positions
position issues
an issue about which the public is united and rival candidates or political parties adopt similar positions in hopes that each will be thought to best represent those widely shared beliefs
valence issues
an election held to choose which candidate will hold office
general election
an election held to choose candidates for office
primary election
a primary election in which voting is limited to already registered party members
closed primary
a primary election in which voters may choose in which party to vote as they enter the polling place
open primary
a primary election in which each voter may vote for candidates from both parties
blanket primary
a second primary election held when no candidate wins a majority of the votes in the first primary
runoff primary
spending by PACs, corporations, or labor unions that is done to help a party or candidate but is done independently of them
independent expenditures
funds obtained by political parties that are spent on party activities, such as get-out-the-vote drives, but not on behalf of a specific candidate
soft money
organizations that, under section 527 of the Internal Revenue Code, raise and spend money to advance political causes
527 organizations
voting for candidate because you favor his or her ideas for handling issues
prospective voting
voting for a candidate because you like his or her past actions in office
retrospective voting
What are the two phases to an election?
1. Get nominated
2. Get elected
Generally what is a voter turnout for a presidential election like compared to just a congressional election?
Presidential elections have higher voter turnouts.
How does a person who wants to become president start his campaign?
Must gain a proper reputation from "The Great Mentioner", which is a name made up for whoever in the media decides who is president caliber
What is required to have a proper reputation to become president?
1. Be known in good light to reporters
2. Travel around making speeches
3. Already have a famous name
4. Be known with a piece of legislation
How much money can be donated to a presidential campaign?
$2000 per person.
$5000 per PAC.

No going over set amount.
Is it easier to be elected into the house of representatives if you are an incumbent or a newcomer?
Incumbent. Representatives are always re-elected with an infinite number of terms.
What are the problems of dividing district lines?
Depending on which party is dominate in the state congress at that point, means that the party could redraw statelines to make it so that there are more voters of their party than the other party.
How are the four problems in deciding who gets represented in the House solved?
This is not a perfect solution. There are still many flaws.

The fixed size of the house is 435. And there is a strict formula employed to count population.
Court also ordered that states make "one vote equal to another"
What are the four problems to solve in deciding who gets represented in the House?
1. Establishing the total size of the House
2. Allocating seats in the House among the states
3. Determining the size of congressional districts within the state.
4. Determining the shape of those districts
What is the usual outcome of an incumbent running in a primary.
They win, it's very rare that they lose.
Why do members run individually instead of as a whole party?
They want to seperate themself from the rest of the party so that they can make themselves look good and seperate themselves from the party's mistake.
What is the effect of our election process on the candidate we pick?
1. Produces legislators who know about local concerns
2. Ensures that party leaders will have a weak influence on those chosen
Should polititians be delegates or trustees (think in terms of definition)?
In polititians' minds they are a mix of both.
What is the other type of candidate selection for president besides primaries?
Caucus
What are the two kinds of campaign issues?
Position and Valence
What is the difference between the two differenct campaign issues?
Position issues are issues with opinions that are greatly divided within the country (exp: abortion)
Valence issues are issues that everyone in the country agrees on. (exp: low crime rates) These issues are used to perceive the character of the candidate
What kind of issue causes great party realignments?
Position issues
What form of media does campaigning now focus the most on?
Broadcasting
What type of broadcasting are the most focussed on in campaigning?
Spots and visuals.
What is the flaw of visuals in terms of spots?
Visuals give less information than spots.
A short television ad
spot
A campaign activity that appears on news broadcast
Visual
What is the problem with debates and visuals?
Slip of the tongue might make your opponent look better than you.
How does the Internet and direct mail affect campaigning?
Now campaigning can be aimed at an isolated group such as an ethinicity or religion.
Where do candidates get the money for their campaigns?
President - private donors with the federal government matching whatever private donors donate (if lower than $250)

Congress- All private money
What caused the change in finance rules for campaigning?
Nixon- Watergate scandal
What are the new finance rules for campaigning?
1. Each person can only donate $1000 per candidate
2. PACs must give to 5 candidates and no more than $5000
Does tax money go into campaigns?
Yes, but only primary candidates from major parties.
Are candidates able to decline matching funds?
Yes, but they rarely do so.
What were the second campaign finance laws?
1. banned soft money
2. limit raised from $1000 to $2000
3. Business donations were restricted
Does money available to a candidate affect the outcome of an election?
For a congressional seat, it would. For a presidential seat, it would not since both candidates have the same amount available.
How does the economy affect voter choices?
If the economy is bad, the voters choose the candidate that is in the opposing party of the seated president. If the economy is good, a candidate of the same party as the seated will be elected.
What are the two different type of reasonings for a vote?
Prospective and Retrospective
What is the difference between the two reasonings of who to vote for?
Prospective - requires prior research and only for political junkies.

Retrospective- Look at recent years and vote based on that
What are the 6 different kinds of elections?
general, primary, closed, open, blanket, and runoff
What is the difference between a general election and a primary election?
A primary chooses who is a candidate for the the general election while the general election is the seating election.
What is the difference between open, closed, and blanket primaries?
closed - voting only for limted to already registered party members

open - choose which party they wish to vote in when they enter the pollling place

blanket - can vote for a candidate from each party
What does "red states" mean?
States that the Republican party carried during the election.
What does "blue states" mean?
States that the Democrat party carried during the election.