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30 Cards in this Set

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What is a combined sewer?
-Residential, industry, and runoff
-Ex. Atlanta has 7 CSOs (combined sewer outflow) transfers sewage into local waterways to prevent overflow
What happens in the treatment of waste water?
1. Primary treatment= removes solids
2. Secondary treatment= uses bacteria to breakdown organic matter
3. Tertiary treatment= disinfect water with ozone or UV, remove phosphorous and nitrogen and water can return
What is the atmospheric composition?
-Nitrogen: 78
-Oxygen: 21
-Argon: about 1
-Carbon dioxide: .039
-Methane: .00017
What is the trend of altitude and temperature at different levels in the atmosphere?
-Troposphere= temp decreases with altitude
-Stratosphere= temp rises with altitude
-Mesosphere= temp decreases with altitude
-Thermosphere= slightly decreases
What is the lapse rate?
Change in temperature with elevation
What is the tropopause?
The transition between the troposphere and the stratosphere (where planes normally fly)
What are the three kinds of UV light?
-UVa= weaker, violet light
-UVb= sunscreen, ozone limits it, middle
-UVc= very damaging, ozone gets rid of, strongest
What is happening in Antarctica in regards to the ozone?
-July/August= freezing, NOx--ice so Cl is free, but no sun
-September/October= sun, Cl free, NOx--ice which causes ozone destruction
-July/August= winter vortex
-CFC has Cl
What was the Montreal Protocol 1987?
Reduced CFCs and other harmful gases to ozone (UVb)
What is a Hadley cell?
Cycle in the 30 degrees
What are ferrel cells?
In 60 degrees
What is the Coriolis Effect?
-Bodies deflected to left or right due to Earth's rotation (air or water)
-Right in Northern, left in Southern
What is the Rain Shadow Effect?
As a rain cloud moves over a mountain it becomes dry and the valley below it (rain shadow) is also dry
What was the Clean Air Act of 1970?
-EPA regulated
-Stricter air quality standards
-Set limits for emissions= ozone, particulates, CO, NOx, SOx, and lead
How is acid rain formed?
-NOx+H2O=Nitric acid (HNO3)
-SOx+H2O=Sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
How acidic is acid rain and what are it's sources?
-PH=3.3
-NOx from combustion (cars)
-SOx from burning coal
What are the effects of acid rain?
-Building erosion
-Kills plants (acid releases aluminum ions that are toxic to plants)
-Leaches out nutrients
What are solutions to reducing acid rain?
-Taller smoke stacks, send acid rain to Canada (lolz)
-Scrubbers= in coal burning plants, removes Sox
-Catyltic converters= NOx=N2+O2, forms carbon dioxide
What is photochemical smog?
-NOx+VOCs+O2+sunlight= ozone (O3) +other stuff (smog)
-Effects: scars lungs
What are VOCs?
Volatile organic compounds= hydrocarbons, from dry cleaners, industry/manufacturing, trees
What is the greenhouse effect?
Capture of heat by earth's atmosphere
What changed have we seen in recent years with the warming of the planet?
-Melting glaciers
-Earlier spring
-Warming oceans
-Increase in hurricane severity/frequency
-Coral bleaching
-Geographical change in species ranges (invasive species, human health risks)
-Permafrost loss
-Increasing sea levels due to warming ocean (expansion) and melting glaciers
-Loss of arctic ice
What are the Milankovitch Cycles?
1. Wobble= like a spinning top, changes with seasons, every 20,000 yrs, moves into angle that favors cooling
2. Change in tilt= varies between 22 and 25, more tilt--move extreme seasons, every 40,000 yrs
3. Earth's orbit= effects difference between July and January, every 100,000 yrs, right at minimum of elliptic
What is a keeling curve?
-Shows CO2 concentration
-Currently at 393 ppm
What are the greenhouse gases?
-Water vapor= weak warming effect, most common, traps heat
-Carbon Dioxide= combustion
-Methane= agriculture
-N2O (Nitrous Oxide)= agriculutre
Where do most emissions in general come from?
Generation of electricity and power
What is the ocean conveyor belt?
-Warm surface current, then sinks when becomes cold
-Keeps Europe mild
What is the difference between a El Niño and a La Niña year?
-El Niño= every 2-7 yrs, abnormally warm temps in Eastern Pacific
-La Niña= every 1-4 yrs, abnormally cool surface water temps, warmer and dryer in US
What are two other natural events that effect climate change?
-Aerosols= tiny particles that reflect solar radiation
-Volcanoes
What was the Kyoto Protocol?
-Industrialized nations had to cut GHF emissions to 5% below 1990 levels by 2012
-US never ratified
-Some European countries have met goals