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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the definition of water pollution?
Any chemical, biological, or physical change in the water that harms it.
What are pathogens?
The disease causing agents: bacteria, viruses, protozoa, parasitic worms
What are the results of pathogens?
Water pathogens are leading cause of IFR, cause 80% of diseases in LDC
What is coliform bacteria?
A harmless group of pathogens...good indicators of poor water quality
type: escheriachia coli-type of coliform bacteria
What is biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)?
the amount of dO needed by aerobic decomposers to break down organic material in a designated volume of water over a 5 day period at 20 degrees celcius
What is the Oxygen Sag Curve?
Affected by speed and waterand quality of effluent.
What does a high BOD mean?
Its a eutrophic lake.
What are some causes of mercury poisoning?
Nervous system damage, birth defects, developmental delays. source = mining, COAL INDUSTRY.
What are the sources and effects of lead poisoning?
sources- paint pipes, incineration, lead burning, shotgun pellets, gasoline, crystal-use lead
effects: hearing loss, blindness, developmental delays
What is the cause of and effects of arsenic pollution?
cause- from acid mine drainage
effect- cancer, death, anemia
What is the cause and effects of sodium chloride pollution?
Cause- salinization of soil
Effects- decreased crop yields
What is the cause and effects of sulfur/nitrogen acid compound pullution?
cause- burning of fossil fuels
effect- ph changes:affects species, leaches metals
What is biomagnification?
An increase in the concentration of the chemical through the trophic levels
What is bioaccumulation?
An increase in the chemical concentration into the body
What is biological half life?
The amount of time it takes for a toxin in your body to be reduced by half
What is dioxin?
an organic chemical
a by-product of burning paper
75 diff chlorinated hydrocarobs. TCDD- most harmful
effects: cancer, weakened immune system
biologicla half life- 6-12 years
What are PCBS?
209 diff. types, invented 1929 banned 1977. fat soluble. Used as a lubricator, plasticator
effects: cancers, brain damage, endochrinal disrupters
half life- over 70 years-90 years
What is DDT and organic metabolite DDE?
a pesticide, becomes DDE "a wonder pesticide" invented 1948. controls mosquitos. powder, non water-soluble, banned 1973. Though to be only toxic to insencts, but bad for fish
effects: thinning of bird eggshells. Endochrine disruptor, cancer, loss of mental function, early puberty.
Biological half life- 8 years
What is sediment pollution?
the soil that is eroded runs off and ends up in a body of water.
What are the effects of sediment pollution?
shallow the water...leads to flooding, obstructing of ship lines, clog gills of fish, reduce photosynthesis.
Largest class of water pollutants by volume.
What is thermal pollution?
Heat abosbed by water used to cool the industry is dumped into the water.
problem= aquatic organisms stressed, killed. Non-natives come in, cold water holds more dO.
What is genetic pollution?
When invasive species outcompete natives
What does chemical analysis determine?
The presence and concentration of pollutants
What are some indicator species?
mussels- filter feeders
amphibians- very thin skin, sensitive to pH scale
What is computer modeling?
A Cheap and easy way to find out what will happen after release of pollutants. Good information.
What is a point source of water pollution?
The source of the pollution is easily identifiable. a pipe-effluent pipe, facroty
a smokestack, or a leaking oil tanker
What is a non-point source of water pollution?
IT cannot be tracfed to a single sight of discharge
ex: run-off
sources- fertilizer, maneur, acid rain, urban run off, seepage
In US, most non-point pollution is caused by agriculture
Describe stream pollution
Able to dillute the pollutants
Solution: some cities take commons approach-downstream
Water Pollution Laws (CWA, Safe Drinking Water '74, '86, '96
Describe Lake Pollution
Dillution is less because of stratification
can take years for the lake to clean itself
eutrophication-more nutrients, prevents degradation
Clean-up- Remove excess weeds, dredge bottom of the lake
What are some of the factors of thermal pollution?
thermal shock- sharp change in temperature
thermal enrichment- using the heat productively
What are some ways to reduce thermal pollution?
1. using less energy
2. put in ponds
3. use cooling towers
4. legally limit amt. of heated effluent
5. make farther outfall
Give information about the current situation of the Great Lakes
95% of our freshwater, 6 quadrillion gallons. vulnerable because not a lot of output. St. Lawrence seaway is the only way it leaves. Pollutants just stay there. A lot of agricultural run-off. PCBs, DDT. Canada hates us b/c they own half the lakes. Great lakes water quality agreement, no untreated sewage
Describe the currect Chesapeake Bay situation
Largest estuary in the U.S. Maryland, Virginia area. Gigantic watershed- 9 rivers, 141 creeks, 6 states. We get mussells, crabs, scallops. Trying to limit agricultural run-off-bumper zone-plants along the river. Much cleaner now.
Explain the Exxon Valdez situation
March 24, 1989-Captain Drunk, 1,000 miles contaminated shoreline. Oil Protection Act-Boats double hauled, Still shipping oil
Describe dredge spols
(eroded material, heavy metals)
left over from dredging. stuff removed to keep shipping lines open
legal in the US to dump in 118 coastal sites.
use it for fill, mostly military dumping.
Describe sewage sludge
(viruses, bacteria, solid chemicals_
illegal in the US to dump sewage sludge off the coast
legal in Mexico and Canada
Victoria, BC
Describe sewage/garbage sea
80% of merchant fleet agreed to not drop at sea
hard to regulate
2 million seabirds, 100,000 marine mammals die when they eat this
Describe radioactive or highly-toxic pollutants
regulated by London Dumping Convetion
72 outlawed high, 83 outlawed low
94 permanent ban except Russia, China, England, France, Belgium
What are the sources of crude oil pollution?
tanker accidents, routine maintenance, run-off, air pollution, and natural causes
Describe the role that tanker accidents play in crude oil pollution
37 million gallons/year WORLDWIDE
exxon waldex- 37,000 tonnes oil
Describe the role that routine maintenance and off-shore drilling have in crude oil pollution
152 million gallons/year
Cleaning bilge
In US, amount of oil spilled in exxon valdex (x 1000) = routine maintenance year
Describe the role that run off has in crude oil pollution
363 million/gallons year
changing of the oil, industrial run-off, gasoline in your car
In US, 20 Exxon Valdez ships per year from people who change their own oil.
Describe the role that air pollution has in crude oil pollution
92 million gallons/year
from cars or industry
Describe the role that natural causes have in crude oil pollution
62 million gallons per year
Describe the types of mechanical clean up
floating booms- surrounds the oil, a noodle keeps it from moving
skimmer boats- a boat that lays shallow in water, big vacuum.
absorbent pads or pillows- absorbent
Describe the types of chemical clean up
coagulating agents- causes the oil to clump
dispersal agents- causes slick to break up into smaller parts
fire (napalm_ burn off the oil from the surface of the water
Describe the types of natural clean-up
waves- naturally breaks into smaller parts
bacteria- can eat crude oil. can only use small amts.
Describe the clean-up of non-point sources
1. leading source is agricultural run-off
a. reduce the amt. of fertilizer/pesticides
b. plant a bugger between farm and creek
c. don't put fertilizer/pesticides steep slopes
d. crop rotation
e. only use pesticides when necessary
f. IPM- Integrated Pest Management
g. reforest critical watersheds- Hubbard-Brook
Describe the clean up of point sources
1. Federal Water Pollution Control Act 1972 (now Clean Water Act 1977) & Water Quality Act 1987
a. the EPA is the gov't branch in charge of clean water
b. Amended almost yearly
c. Goals: make all water safe for swimming/fishing
2. Water Quality Trading Policy 1995, 2003
a. a high pollutor can purchase pollution credits from a low pollutor in same area
b. has to be within same watershed
c. supposed to benefit both economy and environment
d. can trade nutrient levels, carbon-based levels, or sediments
Describe the Total Composition in Wastewater:
a. Feces-16%
b. Sink/Bath/Laundry Water-32%
c. Urine-20%
d. Ground Food-18%
e. Toilet Paper- 8%
f. Water Softenener/Detergent-6%
Describe septic tanks
25% of US has waste water going to a septic tank.
a tank underground that treds water on sight
traps grease and large solids in large tank
liquid is dispersed over a drainage field
soil filters the water
has to be cleaned every 3-5 years
Describe primary sewage treatment
use screens to remove material from top and bottom
Describe Secondary Sewage Treatment
take brown water-biological cleansing w/aerobic bacteria to eat 90% of oxygen demanding waste
trickling filters-(we do not use this as a community) water trickles down a bed of stones
activated sludge (what we use_ pump the sewage water into a clarifying tank. throw in a bunch of sludge w/ bacteria, pump in air, bacteria eat organic material and ammonia-sedimentation tank flacculating agent (alum)
Describe Advanced/Tertiary Sewage Treatement
1. not legally required, expensive
Los Angeles, use sand/anthracite filter
Wonderful: maryland pond
Describe the Disinfection process
Chlorine- worst way, bublle through water and then dechlorinate w/ hydrogen sulfide
Ozone- bubble ozone through water to kill pathogens and release ozone
UV Light- take water and pass it through bank of lights
What happens to the disposal after the sewage treatment?
46% Fertilizer- have to aerobically digest it or compost
38 % Landfill- problem-wet, thick, toxic, goes into groundwawter
16% Incinerate-turns into air pollutants (dioxin)
What are mounds?
Build a 6 feet tall mound of soil, strain out soilds-use it as a filter
What are sewage walls?
terraced planks
What is SIRDO
Type I: composting toilet. used for fertilizer-doesn't require water
Type II-strain off the soilds, percolate gray water through filters. used for irrigation water full of nutrients.
What is groundwater
Our drinking water source. Easily contaminated b/c:
1. doesn't dillute
2. no oxygen
3. very cold-bacteria don't like it
25% of groundwater in the US is contaminated
What are some sources of groundwater pollution?
Leaking underground storage tanks
Agricultural Run-Off
Abandon hazardous waste dumps
What is the clean-up and prevention of groundwater pollution?
required to have leak-detection system on new tanks
new tanks have to be made of non-corrosive materials
Owner has to have liability insurance
There is a separate federal trust fund for these
What are some sollutions to groundwater pollution?
Pump the water up from aquifer, clean, put back in
Monitor your aquifers
Require leak detection systems on all tanks
Require liability insurance on all tanks
Buy water from somewhere else
Describe the quality of drinking water
Many Rivers Around the World are polluted
Drinking water purified before supplied to people
Municipal systems have to test for pollutants
Private wells not required to test
20% Americans have drinking water that would not meet EPA standards
IS Boiled Water the Answer?
Aquafina and Dasani come from municipal centers
Municipal water frequently just as clean
What are sollutions to pollution in general?
Source Reduction-if you have less waste, it won't drip
Reuse treated wastewater- For irrigation or drinking
Recycle Pollutants- Prevents them from going back into groundwater.