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34 Cards in this Set

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intraspecific competition
Two or more organisms of a single species trying to use the same limited resources in an ecosystem
pioneer species
First hardy species, often microbes, mosses, and lichens, which begin colonizing a site as the first stage of ecological succession.-
secondary succession
Sequential development of communities in an area in which natural vegetation has been removed or destroyed but the soil is not destroyed
biodiversity where is it found?
coral reef and rain forest
symbiotic realationship
Species interaction in which two kinds of organisms live together in an intimate association. Members of the participating species may be harmed by, benefit from, or be unaffected by the interaction
ecological succession
Process in which communities of plant and animal species in a particular area are replaced over time by a series of different and often more complex communities
inertia
Ability of a living system to resist being disturbed or altered
native species
Species that normally live and thrive in a particular ecosystem
disturbance
A discrete event that disrupts an ecosystem or community. Examples of natural disturbances include fires, hurricanes, tornadoes, droughts, and floods. Examples of human-caused disturbances include deforestation, overgrazing, and plowing
midsuccessional plant species
Grasses and low shrubs that are less hardy than early successional plant species
theory of island biogeography
The number of species found on an island is determined by a balance between two factors: the (1) immigration rate (of species new to the island) from other inhabited areas and (2) extinction rate (of species established on the island). The model predicts that at some point the rates of immigration and extinction will reach an equilibrium point that determines the islandUs average number of different species (species diversity).--
keystone species
Species that play roles affecting many other organisms in an ecosystem
precautionary principle
When there is scientific uncertainty about potentially serious harm from chemicals or technologies, decision-makers should act to prevent harm to humans and the environment
predation
Situation in which an organism of one species (the predator) captures and feeds on parts or all of an organism of another species (the prey
edge effect
The existence of a greater number of species and a higher population density in an ecotone than in either adjacent ecosystem
parasitism
Interaction between species in which one organism, called the parasite, preys on another organism, called the host, by living on or in the host
constancy
Ability of a living system, such as a population, to maintain a certain size
stability
Ability of a living system to withstand or recover from externally imposed changes or stresses
mutualism
Type of species interaction in which both participating species generally benefit
parasite
: Consumer organism that lives on or in and feeds on a living plant or animal, known as the host, over an extended period of time. The parasite draws nourishment from and gradually weakens its host; it may or may not kill the host
predator- prey relationship
Interaction between two organisms of different species in which one organism, called the predator, captures and feeds on parts or all of another organism, called the prey.
nonnative species
Species that migrate into an ecosystem or are deliberately or accidentally introduced into an ecosystem by humans
resilince
Ability of a living system to restore itself to original condition after being exposed to an outside disturbance that is not too drastic
exploitation competition
Situation in which two competing species have equal access to a specific resource but differ in how quickly or efficiently they exploit it
competitive exclusion
No two species can occupy exactly the same fundamental niche indefinitely in a habitat where there is not enough of a particular resource to meet the needs of both species
commenlism
An interaction between organisms of different species in which one type of organism benefits and the other type is neither helped nor harmed to any great degree
late successional plant species
Mostly trees that can tolerate shade and form a fairly stable complex forest community
interspecific competition
Members of two or more species trying to use the same limited resources in an ecosystem.
resource partioning
Process of dividing up resources in an ecosystem so that species with similar needs (overlapping ecological niches) use the same scarce resources at different times, in different ways, or in different places
early successional planet species
Plant species found in the early stages of succession that (1) grow close to the ground, (2) can establish large populations quickly under harsh conditions, and (3) have short lives
host
Plant or animal on which a parasite feeds
indicator species
Species that serve as early warnings that a community or ecosystem is being degraded
primary succession
Sequential development of communities in a bare area that has never been occupied by a community of organisms
symbiosis
Any intimate relationship or association between members of two or more species