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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Skeletal muscles are?
Voluntary
Muscle cells are referred to as
Fibers
Skeletal muscles come in varies shapes and sizes called
Striated
Skeletal muscle fibers:
1. Blood vessels
2. Connective tissue
3. Nerves
Each muscle is supplied
by at least one nerve, one artery, and (one or more) vein near the center or middle of the muscle.
When a skeletal muscle crosses a joint and contracts, one bone moves and the other bone remains stationary. The less moveable attachment of a muscle is called the blank. The more moveable attachment of a muscle is called the blank. The blank is always pulled towards the blank
Origin, insertion, insertion, and origin
Muscles attach to their origins or insertions via connective tissue that is strong and fibrous. There are two basic types of attachments
Direct and indirect attachments
attachments have such short strands of connective tissue that muscles appear to be directly connected to the bone.
Direct
attachments are the opposite, with long strands of connective tissue extending far beyond the muscle.
Indirect
These long strands form either a rope-like structure called a
Tendons
tendon, or a flat tissue sheet called an aponeurosis, which connects to the bone. Bones generally have raised markings (tubercles, trochanters, crests) to which tendons attach. Most muscles attach by blank rather than aponeuroses.
Tendons
Bone markings such as tubercles, trochanters, and crests are the places on bone where muscles attach with rope-like tendons. Less commonly, muscles attach with a flat tissue sheet called a blank.
aponeurosis.
The less movable attachment of a muscle.
Origin
The more movable attachment of a muscle.
Insertion
Short strands of connective tissue that make muscles appear as if they are directly connected to the bone
direct (fleshy) attachments
Long strands of connective tissue extending beyond the muscle.
indirect attachments
A rope-like structure that binds muscles to bone.
Tendon
A flat tissue sheet that connects muscle to bone.
aponeurosis
Smooth Muscle:
Smooth muscles are found in the internal organs and inside blood vessels
internal organs and inside blood vessels
smooth muscle cells have a single blank
nucleus
Smooth muscle tissue has no blank.
striations
Smooth muscle occupies six major location sites:
walls of the circulatory vessels
digestive tubes
urinary organs
reproductive organs
respiratory tubes
inside the eye
The muscle fibers of the longitudinal layer run blank to the length of the organ.
parallel
The muscles of the circular layer wrap blank the circumference of the organ
around
shortens the length of the organ, and the circular layer contracts or constricts the hollow organ. These waves of contraction and relaxation cause substances (in the case of the digestive tubes, food, and liquids) to be propelled through these tubes. This process of propelling substances through hollow visceral organs is called blank.
peristalsis.
Smooth muscle contraction:
Smooth muscle contraction is slow, sustained, and very resistant to fatigue. Smooth muscle has a slower contraction rate (about 30 times longer than skeletal muscle) but is required to hold such contractions much longer than skeletal muscle. This is important because in many of the internal organs mentioned above, smooth muscle needs to maintain a constant level of contraction.
Cardiac Muscle
Cardiac muscle is the third type of muscle found in the human body and forms the majority of the walls of the heart. It is similar in appearance to skeletal muscle with respect to its striated appearance, but it has a single-cell nucleus. This is an involuntary muscle and direct stimuli from the central nervous system (CNS) is not required for contraction. However, the CNS does modify (not initiate) contraction of cardiac muscle.
Situated in front of or toward the front of a body part or organ. This term is also used in reference to a ventral or belly surface of the body. Frontal is a common synonym for blank.
Anterior
Division of the body into anterior and posterior sections. Also called frontal plane. Can mean pertaining to the head or the crown.
coronal
Remote; farther from any point of reference; opposite of proximal. (The shoulder is distal to the wrist but proximal to the elbow.)
Distal
Pertaining to the back of the body; also used to denote a position that is more toward the back than another object of reference. Sometimes called posterior
dorsal
Situated below a structure or directed downward; also used to denote the lower portion of an organ or the lower of two structures. Sometimes called caudal.
inferior
Pertaining to the side; denoting a position farther from the midline (median plane) of a structure.
lateral
Pertaining to the middle; closer to the midline of a body; pertaining to the middle layer.
medial
Situated in the back; also used in reference to the back or dorsal surface of the body.
posterior
Nearest; closer to any point of reference; opposite of distal. (The shoulder is distal to the wrist but proximal to the elbow.)
proximal
Division of body into left and right sides in a vertical lengthwise fashion.
sagittal
Situated above, or directed upward; in official anatomic nomenclature, used in reference to the upper surface of an organ or other structure, or to a structure occupying a higher position.
Superior
A horizontal plane situated at right angles to the long axis, or sagittal and coronal planes; placed crosswise.
Transverse
Pertaining to the abdomen; used to denote a position that is more toward the belly/abdominal surface than some other object of reference.
ventral