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68 Cards in this Set

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4 primary tissue types?
1. epithelial
2. connective
3. muscle
4. nervous
What are the functions of epithelial tissue?
1.Covers and lines all body cavities
2.Provides protective barrier to organs and tissues
3.Some absorb and secrete substances
4.Provides sensory input to other tissues
Tight Junction
An epithelial attachment that is found where there can be no leaks
Gross Anatomy
Study of anatomical structures that are visible to the naked eye
Desosome Junction
Juntion in epithelial cells where filaments interlock with one another (velcro)
-found in areas where stretching and tension occur
List 2 examples of where Tight Junctions occur?
Urinary and digestive tract
How are epithelial tissues catagorized?
1.Shape:squamous,cuboidal,columnar
2.Configuration:simple,stratified
3 major junctional complexes in epithelial cells
1. Tight Junction
2. Desosome Junction
3. Gap Junctions
Where are Desosome junctions found?
In areas that stretch and undergo tension: heart, skin, uterus
Basement Membrane
-Foundation of epithelial cells acting as a barrier btwn underlying tissue
Where are Gap Junctions found?
In areas that quickly transport electrical info: heart, smooth muscle, intestines
Gap Junctions
Junction in epithelial cells that are linked by tubular channel proteins called connexons
-able to transport electrical signals
Simple epithelial tissues
Have a single layer of cells
Stratified Epithelial Tissue
Composed of multiple layers of cells
What are the 6 types of connective tissue?
1. Cartlidge
2. Bone
3. Fibrous connective tissue
4. Loose connective tissue
5. Adipose tissue
6. Blood
What connective tissue is found in most of the respiratory passages and in the ears?
Cartlidge
Connective Tissue
-Functions to bind and support
-consists of cells imbedded in a nonliving matrix (unlike epithelial)
What are cartilage cells embedded in?
collagen
Bone cells are embedded in?
collagen and minerals and form the skeleton
Fibrous and loose connective tissues are embedded in?
elastin and collagen to form tendons and ligaments(fibrous), and underly skin (loose)
Adipose tissue cells are embedded in?
lipid matrix
3 types of connective fibers
1. collagenous
2. Reticular
3. Elastic
Collagenous Fibers
composed of collagen, they are strong and are found in tendons and ligaments
Reticular Fibers
are composed of callogen,they are thin and delicate, they support highly cellular organs such as the endocrine glands and liver.
Elastic Fibers
-composed of the protein elastin, they can stretch and contract, occur in tissues that stretch (lungs, skin)
-branch into networks
-have bundles of microfibrils that can coil and strentch like a rubber band
-aka yellow fibers
What are the 2 major catagories of Connective tissue cells?
1. Fixed
2. Wandering
What are the 3 types of Wandering Cells?
1.leukocytes
2.mast cells
3.macrophages
What is a gland?
group of cells that make and discharge a secretion
What is an endocrine gland and its main function?
They produce hormones that are secreted into the bloodstream or lymphatic system
What are exocrine glands and their main function?
They discharge secretions locally, such as sweat and salivary.
Where are goblet cells found?
They are found in simple epithelia
What are Fixed cells? Name some fixed cells.
1 of 2 types of Connective tissue cell types, they stay in the conn. tissue (vs. pass out), they produce and maintain the matrix
IE's: fibroblasts,adipose,reticular
What are Fibroblasts?
Fibroblasts are a type of fixed cell found in conn. tissue.
What are adipose cells?
They are fat cells, they are a fixed cell found in conn. tissues.
What are reticular cells?
cells involved in immune response, they are a fixed cell found in conn. tissues
What are 3 types of Wandering Cells?
leukocytes, mast, macrophages
What are wandering cells?
Cells found in connective tissues that pass in/out of the tissue (vs. staying fixed in the tissue)
-Wandering cells repair and protect the tissue
What are leukocytes?
aka white blood cells
They are a wandering cell found in conn. tissue, found in the blood, larger than RBC's, they FIGHT INFECTION and MANUFACTURE ANTIBODIES
What are mast cells?
type of wandering cell, They contain histamine and heparin which are released when a foreign invader is detected (to help fight it off with allergic and inflammitory reactions)
What are macrophages?
They are both fixed and wandering cells, they are drawn to infection or inflammation to engulf microinvaders
What are the 3 things all connective tissues are made of?
Ground substance, cells, fibers
What is cartilidge?
tough conn. tissue found in joints and prevents bones from rubbing together
What is bone?
hardest type of conn. tissue that form the skeleton and protects the organs and marrow produces blood cells
What are membranes and their main function?
When connective and epithelial tissues link together to COVER surfaces, LINE cavities, SEPERATE organs
What are the 4 common types of membranes?
1.mucous
2.serous
3.cutaneous
4.synovial
What is the function of mucous membranes?
produce mucous to reduce friction(digestive system) and entrap particles(resp. system)
Where are mucous membranes found?
Digestive, reproductive, urinary, respiratory
What does mucous consist of?
water, electrolytes, antibodies, and the protein mucin.
Where are serous membranes found?
thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities
What are the 2 layers of the serous membranes?
visceral layer is closest to the organ, parietal layer is closest to the body cavity.
What is the function of serous membranes?
They line organs and reduce friction btwn organs and cavities
What are the mesenteries?
supportive ligaments formed from the visceral layer of the serous membrane-they secure organs to the body wall in the abd and pelvic cavities.
What are the 3 types of muscle tissue?
smooth, skeltal, cardiac
What is smooth muscle?
found in digestive tract, contracts involuntarily
What is skeletal muscle?
It attaches to bones and is under voluntary control
What is cardiac muscle?
unique to the heart and allow for contraction and relaxation of heart tissue to pump blood, involuntary
What is nervous tissue?
it conducts impulses throughout the body-found in peripheral and CNS
What initially happens when tissue is damaged?
vasoconstriction occurs and decreases blood flow to the area-which helps control hemorrhaging.
What steps are involved in tissue damage and repair?
1.vasoconstriction
2.vasodilation=area becomes warm & red
3.Plasma rushes to area=tissue swells
4.clots form as wbc remove infection
5. inflammation subsides due to wbc response
6. blood vessels return to normal
7.granulation tissue forms-further protect
8. new epithelial cells form epithelial layer around the tissue
9.scar tissue closes wounded area
During what healing stages does granulation tissue form?
sencond and third intention healing stages
What is the first step in the inflammatory response?
vasoconstriction
What are synovial membranes
Line the joint cavities and produce synovial fluid to reduce friction
What are cutaneous membranes?
considered an organ system, aka integument
Which membranes line the joints?
synovial
What are cartilidge cells called?
chondrocytes
What membrane lines the thorax, abd, and pelvic cavities?
serous membranes
What type of tissue is comprised of cells in a nonliving matrix?
Connective tissue
Tendons and ligaments are formed from what?
fibrous connective tissue