Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/93

Click to flip

93 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Connective Tissue.
What type of tissue is this?
Idnetify the following:
Erythrocyte
Platelet
Leukocyte
Neutrophil
Lymphocyte
Monocyte
Eosinophil
Basophil
Identify following terms: Sagittal plane
Transverse plane
Dorsal plane Cranial
Caudal
Ventral
Dorsal
Inferior
Superior
Anterior
Posterior
hb
Thoracic Limb:
proximal-humerus,
radius and ulna Extends to
carpus.cranial and caudal
surfaces. distal-carpus,
metacarpus and phalanges.
Dorsal and palmar.

Pelvic Limb: proximal-femur,
tibia and fibula. Extends to
tarsus (hock, ankle).
Cranial/caudal surfaces.
Distal-tarsus, metatarsus and
phalanges. dorsal and plantar.
Define Thoracic Limb, Pelvic Limb.
Box 1-Epithelial Tissue-
anchor cells. Protection,
absorption, secretion.
Box 2-Nervous Tissue-
Communication. React to
physical/chemical stimuli.
conduct to other location.
Box 3-Connective Tissue-
Connects, holds, supports
body tissues. Components:
Cells, extracellular
fibers(strength),
extracellular ground
substance(nutrient diffuse
from blood vessels)
Box 4-Muscle Tissue-
ellongated cells
(fasciculus=sm bundle)
Identify each Box.
Organ Tissue
Epithelial tissue- anchor
cells
Connective tissue-
connects/holds & supports
Muscle tissue- elongated cells
(fibers)
Nervous tissue- conductive
Lumen of ileum-(cavity)
Stroma-organ connective tissue
What is shown in this picture?
Identify the following structures:
Epithelial tissue
Connective tissue
Muscle tissue
Nervous tissue
Lumen of ileum
Stroma
Identify the following epithelia types:
Simple Squamous
Simple Cuboidal
Simple Columnar
Stratified Squamous
Stratified Cuboidal
Pseudostratified Columnar
Transitional
Simple-one cell layer
Stratified-multiple cell layers
Transitional-number of layers and
cell shape varies
What type of tissue is this?
Identify the following:
Simple squamous epithelial cells
Bowman's space
Simple cuboidal epithelial cells
Simple Squamous Epithelial Tissue
Where are squamosal cells found?
Lining body cavities
(mesothelium)
Cardiovascular
Lymphatic systems
(endothelium)
Gas and liquid exchange in
kidneys
What about its shape is beneficial to a squamousal cell?
FLAT & LRG SURFACE AREA:
diffusion and filtration. Line
bowman's space in cortex of the
kidney.
What type of cells line the Bowman's space in the cortex of the kidney?
Simple Squamousal epithelial cells
Where are Simple cuboidal epithelial cells found?
Lining ducts & tubules
What is the finction of simple cuboidal cells?
secretion & absorbtion
(kidney, canine)
What type of tissue is this?
Identify the following structures:
connective tissue
basal cell layer
dry epithelium
keratinized layer
wet epithelium
Stratified Squamous Epithelial Tissue
How is epithelial tissue nourished?
diffusion from blood vessels in connective tissue
What is unique about basal cells?
Continually dividing
New cells pushed to surface where
they are worn off
Describe the function of the dry epithelium?
(SKIN)
contain keratin (strong protein)
resist trauma, bacterial & fungus
infections, watertight
What is the keratinized layer of the dry epithelium?
superficial layer of dead
squamous cells
What is different about the wet epithelium?
Line mouth, esophagus and vagina
Stratified cell- no cornified
surface
What type of tissue is this?
Identify the following
structures:
Simple cuboidal cell
Cell nuclei
Kidney tubule lumen
Simple Cuboidal Epithelial tissue
What are the locations and function of simple cuboidal cells?
Lining ducts and tubules
Secretion & absorbtion

stratified cuboidal v. rare
(kidney, canine)
What is the general(simple) finction of the cell nuclei?
contains genetic material
controls synthetic & meta bolc
activities of cytoplasmic
organelles
What is necessary for a cell nuclei to be found?
Cell must not be dividing
What type of tissue is this?
Identify the following
structures:
Simple columnar cells
Cell nuclei
Basal surface
Luminal surface
Simple Columnar Epithelial Tissue
Where are simple columnar cells located and what is their function?
Lining stomach, itestines, lrg.
ducts.
Secretion & Absorbtion (cilia &
microvilli-increase surface
area)
Where is the cell nuclei found in a columnar cell?
Basal portion & form a single
line in cross section
What is the basal surface of an epithelial cell?
side anchored to basement
membrane. Attaches cell to rest
of body.
What is the luminal side of an epithelial cell?
Side that communicates with lumen of gut or respiratory tract
What type of tissue is this?
Identify the following:
Pseudostratified columnar cells
Cell nuclei
Basal surface
Luminal surface
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelial Tissue
What is the pseudostratified columnar epithelium?
Simple columnar epithelium that
appears to be multiple cell
layers.
Not all columns extend equally to
luminal surface
How do cell nuclei appear in pseudocolumnar epithelium?
nuclei do not line up
Where is pseudocolumnar epithelium located?
Upper respiratory tract
What type of tissue is this?
Identify the following structures:
Bladder cavity
Epithelial layer
Connective tissue
Trasitional Epithelial Tissue
Why is the bladder cavity lined with transitional epithelium?
Allows distention of bladder
lining w/o rupturing or
separating cells
Protects body from noxious waste
What happens when transitional epithelium distends?
Number of layers decrease
Top layer becomes squamous
What are the three major components of connective tissue?
Cells
Extracellular fibers
Extracellular ground substance
What is the function of the ground substance in connective tissue?
nutrients diffuse from blood vessels to cells
What is the function of extracellular fibers in connective tissues?
strength
What type of tissue is this and what is depicted in the picture?
Identify the following:
Duct
secretory cells
Epithelial Connective Tissue
Downgrowths-glands-function in
secretion & excretion
What are the two main types of glands?
Exocrine-ducts convey mucus &
enzymes to epithelial
surface.
Endocrine-no ducts-not
connected to epithelium.
Release hormone directly
into blood for distribution
What type of tissue is this?
Identify the following:
Reticular fibers
Collagen fibers
Gut
Reticular Connective Tissue
What are reticular fibers?
Thin collagen fibers
Surrounding blood vessels &
nerves
What are collagen fibers?
Composed of protein collagen
Great strength
Inelastic
What are elastic fibers?
Composed of protein elastin
Stretch easily & return to
original length
What type of tissue is this?
Identify the following:
Fibroblasts
Elastic fibers
Collagen fibers
Elastic Connective Tissue
What is the function of fibroblasts?
formation of collagen, elastin & ground substance
What type of tissue is this?
Identify the following:
Adipose cell
Adipose cell nuclei
Collagen
Arteriole
Loose Connective Tissue
Where is loose connective tissue found?
Between muscles-packing material (soft and pliable)
What type of cells make up loose connective tissue?
Adipose cells
Where are adipose cell nuclei found?
In the corner
What is the arteriole?
sm. blood vessel, supported by loose connective tissue
How is dense connective tissue different from loose?
More fibers, fewer cells, lessm ground substance
What type of tissue is this? Identify the following:
Regular dense connective tissue
Fibroblast nuclei
Irregular dense connective tissue
o
What characterizes dense connective tissue?
tightly packed fibers
few fibroblasts
v. strong
no elasticity or flexibility
What is dense connective tissue?
thick wave of collagen fibers
few cells
flexibility > strength
(dermis, nerve & muscle sheaths)
What is plasma composed of?
Water, Protein, Solutes
What are erythrocytes & how do they function?
Red Blood Cells
transport of oxygen
(mammals-lack nuclei)
How do platelets function?
Clot formation
What are leukocytes and how do they function?
White Blood Cells
defense against foriegn invaders
What are the structures of leukocytes?
Neutrophil
Lymphocyte
Monocyte
Eosinophil
Basophil
What is the function of neutrophils?
1st line of defense
engulfing & digesting invaders
What is the function of lymphocytes?
synthesis of antibodies
What is the function of monocytes?
leave blood to devour invaders in connective tissues
What is the function of Basophils?
release chemicals mediating itch and tissue swelling
What type of tissue is this?
Identify the following:
Bone
Cartilage
Chondrocytes
Connective Tissue- hyaline cartilage.
How does bone appear in the embryo?
Hyaline cartilage
Development- cartilage replaced
by bone
Hyaline cartilage remains for
joint articulation
What are the cells of cartilage called?
Chondrocytes
What does cartilage consist of?
Dense network of fibers in
gel-like intercellular
Firm & flexible
What is the function of elastic cartilage and where is it found?
v. flexible. returns to original
position
Found in auricle of ear
Where is hyaline cartilage found?
Nose, larynx and bronchi or
repiratory sys.
What type of tissue is this?
Identify the following:
Spongy bone
Compact bone
Muscle
Marrow
Connective tissue- Bone
What causes hardness of bone & the sm elasticity?
Hardness = Calcium Phosphate
Elasticity = organic collagen
fibers
How are bone cells nourished?
Sm. tubular canals
What are the two forms of bone?
Spongy- extremely porous
Compact- solid
How is muscle tissue attached to bone?
Short tendons attach to compact bone
What fills the spaces of the spongy bone?
Marrow
What type of tissue is this?
Identify the following:
Striations
Connective tissue cell nucleus
Skeletal muscle cell nucleus
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
What type of muscle is under voluntary control?
Skeletal Muscle
Describe muscle cells in the skeletal muscle.
Myofibers- long, multinucleared,
parallel bundles
Which types of muscles have "transverse striation"?
Cardiac and Skeletal
What causes striation?
Actin and Myosin protein
filaments- utilize cellular
energy for muscle contraction.
Where is smooth muscle found?
Walls of viscera & blood vessels
What type of tissue is this?
Identify the following:
Connective tissue
Smooth muscle
Smooth muscle Tissue
Why do smooth myofibers form junctions?
Spread excitation & contraction from one cell to another
What type of tissue is this?
Identify the following:
Intercalated disc
Muscle cell nucleus
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
What type of tissue is found in the myocardium?
Cardiac
What are the intercalated discs?
Specialized junctions between
cardiac cells.
Allow spread of excitation
What type of tissue is this?
Identify the following:
Cell body
Dendrites
Axon
Terminals
Nervous Tissue- Neuron
What is the function of a neuron?
Communication
What is the function of a neuron cell body?
Synthesize proteins and neurotransmitters
What is the function of neuron dendrites?
Chemical Reception
What is the function of a neuron axon?
Conduction of nerve impulses over long distances
What is the function of the neuron terminals?
transmissive segment
contacts dendrites of neighboring
neuron
(synapses)
What type of tissue is this?
Identify the following:
Cell bodies of neurons
Nuclei of neurons
Nuclei of support cells
Axon
Ganglion
Nerve
Ganglion Nervous Tissue