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25 Cards in this Set

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Temple complex
a cluster of religious, administrative, and service buildings-centers of worship/thriving businesses
cuneiform
wedge shaped script - first system of writing - Sumerian - was pressed into clay tablets with a stylus
ziggurat
a stepped pyramidal structurew with a temple or shrine on top, decorated with cone mosaics, painted bricks, etc
registers
bands of something - such as a vase, that has been designed with people and animals - used to depict events
low relief
when figures are carved to project only slightly from a flat background
cylinder seals
the first type of seal, or signature, they were small, carved cylinders that would be rolled out to create a familiar design
high relief
figures are carved deeply to make them project more
stela
an upright stone slab - usually with historical inscriptions
citadel
a fortress, usually at the edge of a city
palace complex
at the back of a citadel - a fortified platform about 50 feet high
crenelation
notches - first glazed, then painted, then notched into, like a castle edge
base
slab of masonry supporting a statue/pillar
shaft
the section of a column between the capital and the base
fluting
decorative pattern of evenly spaced grooves on shafts of column
capital
the sculpted block atop a column
Early Neolithic Cities:
Jherico, in the West Bank 8-7000 BCE
Chatal Huyuk - 6500-5500 BCE
Sumer
One of a region of city states along the S. Mesopotamian River *wheel, plow, smelting, writing, system of justice, ziggurats*
Uruk
first independent Sumerian city-state, *votive figures, registers, cone mosaics*
Akkad
Sargon I, conquered and adopoted Sumerian culture
Lagash
Remained independent of Sumerian control. Ruler was Gudea
Babylon
Amorites from the West reunited Sumer under Hammurabi, ruled 1792-1750 BCE, capital city Babylon
Assyria
from the north, conquered and controlled Mesopotamia, even to Egypt. Sargon II, build new capital at Dur Sharrukin - built a huge city/palace
Neo-Babylonian
Babylonians rose in power again, captured Ninevah in 612 BCE, controlled Turkey and across - Nebuchadnezzar is ruler, great contributer of architecture - built Babyulon, complete with the gardens, also had the Ishtar gate
Anatolia
Hittites, in Turkey, conquered to Syria/Lebanon, the doorways were decorated with high-relief guardian figures, a little rougher and coarser artwork, first people to work in iron - Lion Gate
Persia
Ruler - Darius, proclaimed himself King of Kings, made new capital Persopolis, Darius ordered work from all over the empire, integrating Persian, Egyptian, Greek, etc cultures and artwork