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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What composes the CNS
Brain and spinal cord
What does the PNS consist of
Cranial nerves, spinal nerves and their receptors and endings
What are the 2 divisions of the PNS
Somatic, autonomic
The somatic nervous system does what?
sensory controll- skin muscles and joints
Motor controll- skeletal muscles
What are the two division of the autonomic nervous system
symapthetic and parasympathetic
What does the autonomic nervous system do?
controlls involuntary innervation of various organ systems.
What are the two types of nervous tissue cells.
Neurons and neuroglial cells
What in the fundimental structeral and functional unit of the NS
the neuron
What are 4 arrtibutes of neurons
Speclized (physical, electrical or chemical), Differentiated, incapable of division, do not store glucose
the three parts of the neuron consist of
cel body (perikaryon or soma)
What part of the neuron is the biosynthetic center
cell body
What are some of the charteristics of the cell body
cell organelles responsible for metablosim and protien synthesiswhich are not found in the dendrites or axon.
What are groups of neuron cell bodies in the brain called
Where are the nuclei (grouped cell bodies) located in the brain.
Grey matter.
What are groups of neuron cell bodies called in the PNS
what is the function of the dendrites
to transport nerve signals to the toward the cell.
How many times can a dendrite depolarize a second?
none. dendrites do not depolarize.
What type of cell myelinates the dendrite.
dendrites are not myelineated.
How many axons per neuron
genrally only one, but it may branch.
what determines the speed at which axons transmit signals.
diameter and weather myelinated or not. Thicker is faster.
Axons conduct impulses towards or away from the cell body.
What is the function of the Axon hillock
this is the TRIGGER ZONE in which nerve impulses arrise.
What are the terminal ends of the axon called and what is their function.
synaptic buttons or presynaptic knobs. secrete hormones and neurotransmitters to initate further events and APs
What are the different nomenclature for bundles of nerve fibers in the CNS and The PNS.
CNS= tracts
What type of cell insulates or sheaths the axon in the PNS. and what is it's function and benefit.
Schwan cells. provides electrical insulation of the cell and allows the nerve signal to move much quicker.
What are the insulating cell of the CNS and how is it different from the PNS.
Oligodendrocyte. covers many axons instead of only one. composes the white matter.
What is the end result of de-mylelinating desease such as MS.
loss of sheath that results in the loss of the ability to controll muscles.
What are the gaps in the mylein sheath called.
Nodes and Ranvier
Where are the Na channels located on the Axon.
at the nodes of ranvier.
where does AP occure on the axon.
Only at the nodes of ranvier.
What is the significance of the nodes of ranvier
allow very rapid transmition of AP, prevent leakage of AP as it travels.
What are the three structeral calssifications of neurons.
what is the most common structeral calssfication and what characterises them
multipolar neurons, characterized by several dendrites and one axon.
What is the best example of a multipolar neuron
muscle cell
What are bipolar neurons primary functions.
they are receptor cells in specialized sence organs such as retina, ear and olfactory mucosa.
What would a bipolar cell look like.
cell body in the middle
anon at one end and dendrite at the other.
What would a multipolar cell typically look like.
cell body surrounded by dendrites with a single axon.
Where are unipolar cells located.
in the PNS with cell bodies in the posterior root ganglia.
What do unipolar neurons look like.
cell body on a shaft which is connected to a axon/dendrite like tree.
There are three functional calssifications of neurons what are they?
What are the charasterics of the interneurons.
located only in the CNS
Integrative functions of the nervous system. (process info and initate responce)
What are the charastics of the motorneurons.
Efferent (away from) from CNS to effector organs or glands.
What are the two types of motor neurons.
somatic (reflex and voluntary skeletal muscles)
Autonomic (involuntary muscles and glands)
What are the charastics of sensory neurons.
Afferent (to the CNS) pseudounipolar cells in the ganglia. (escept special sence cells)
What types of neurons are motor neurons.
What are the 4 types of glial cells
What are the functions of the ependymal cells
Line the third and fourth ventricles of brain. they form the cuboidal epithelium wich secrets CSF.
Microgilas Cells proivde what function in the CNS.
Are trasported to cites of injury and from macrophages that phagocytize the neuronal debris.
________ from mylein sheaths over many axons, and are incapable of reginration.
_______ cells induce capillaries to form the Blood brain barrier, and are responsible for most neoplasms of the CNS.
_________ cells are the predominate glial cells, which have star shaped appearance.
These cells are active in repair following injury and maintain appropriate concentration of K, Nh4,GLutamate, serotonin, catecholamines and GABA.
__________ Isolates the brain and spinal cord from the intravascular compartment ensuring the brains stable environment.
Blood brain barrier.
What substances cross the Blood brain Barrier easily
lipid soluable
fatty acids
water, CO2, and O2.
What are the Circumventricular organs.
Area postrema
pituitary gland
pineal gland
choroid plexus
portions of the hyothalmus
What is the significance of the Circumventricular organs.
Lack the blood brain barrier
What is the function area postrema
Chemoreceptor zone that initaes N/V. also has some cardiovascualr controll (not specific)
What conditions may lead to comprimizing the BBB.
trauma, subarachnoid, intracerebral hemorage, inshemia, lesions, infestion, irradiation.