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151 Cards in this Set

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Functions of the skin
Protection
Sensation
Body Temperature Regulation
Synthesis of Chemicals
Excretion
Describe Keratinization
Cells migrate further away from the dermal blood supply they accumulate a tough waterproof protein called keratin in their membranes. Cells dies & leaves keratinized husk of cell
Melanocytes
found in deepest epidermal layer
produce melanin, a pigment that absorbs UV radiation
The Dermis contains
Blood Vessels
Nerves & their receptor endings
Hair follicles
Muscle Tissues
Sebaceous glands
Sweat glands
Body Temperature regulation
Sweat production
Dermal Blood vessel dilation
Subcutaneous Fascia - Hypodermis
Below dermis
Loose connective tissue
contains large amount of fat cells
helps keep heat inside body
The endocrine system
helps to control & coordinate body functions. Works through effects of chemical messengers called hormones
Endocrine glands
secrete their products (hormones) into the body fluids, such as blood or CSF
Callus
overzealous reaction of the epidermis to excess friction
Exocrine glands
Release thier secretions into ducts that lead to an outside surface
Endocrine Glands
Secrete hormones into the bloodstream to affect target tissues/organs
Nerve impulses from the hypothalamus stimulate the ______ lobe of the pituitary gland
Posterior
The ________ lobe of the pituitary gland is stimulated by releasing factors secreted by the hypothalamus
Anterior
What is the only gland that is both exocrine & endocrine?
The Pancreas
The pituitary hormone that stimulates & maintains milk production following childbirth is_____
Prolactin
A person experiencing emotional stress is more or less likely to develop an infections that an individual with a lower stress level
MORE
Hormones of the Medulla
Epinephrine & Norepinephrine
(Adrenaline & Noradrenaline)
Continue sympathetic nervous system effects (10x longer)
Stress response
2nd major link between NS & Endocrine system
Layers of the Wall of the Heart
Epicardium - outer layer (visceral pericardium)
Mycardium - middle, muscle layer
Endocardium - innermost layer
Chambers of the Heart
L & R atrium (superior)
L & R ventricles (inferior)
Left side of heart
Receives oxygenated blood from pulmonary veins into L Atrium & passes to L Ventricle to be sent to body via Aorta
Right side of heart
receives deoxygenated blood via Vena Cava to R atrium, to R ventricle to lungs via Pulmonary trunk
Coronary circulation
Blood vessels that feed oxygen to the muscle & tissues of the heart & remove carbon dioxide
Cardiac Cycle
The chambers of the heart contract & relax in a coordinated repeating pattern. This ensures that the heart muscle acts effectively to pump blood through the body
Systole
Contraction phase of chamber
Diastole
Relaxation phase of chamber
Heart sounds
2 sounds "lub dub" comes from valves. A whooshing occurs if the valve(s) isn't closing properly
Tricuspid Valve
Right AV valve
Between R Atrium & R Ventricle
Pulmonary Valve
Right Semilunar
Between R Ventricle & Pulmonary trunk
Bicuspid Valve
Mitral or Left AV valve
Between L Atrium & L Ventricle
Aortic Valve
L Semilunar
Between L Ventricle & Aorta
Chordae tendineae
Papillary muscles - small muscles attached to L&R AV valves that prevent valve from popping back into atria
Cardiac Conduction System
Comprised of specialized cardiac muscle cells located throughout the heart. Tells don't contract, they distribute impulses throughout the myocardium & coordinate the events of the cardiac cycle
SA Node
The "pacemaker"
Intitiates heartbeats by generating an action potential at regular intervals
SinoAtrial Node@ top of R atrium - sends branches to both L&R atria
Atrial Syncytium
Contraction of the atrial cells collectively
Ventrical Syncytium
Contraction of the ventricle cells collectively
Cardiac Control Center
In Medulla oblongata, regulates visceral activity
Parasympathetic Control
Craniosacral control - CN X - Vagus nerve
Direct connection to AV & SV nodes
Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic Control
Thoracolumbar control - direct connection to AV & SV nodes
Autonomic Nervous System
Function of arteries
To carry blood away from the heart
Describe capillaries
The smallest blood vessels, connect arterial & venous systems
Structure of capillaries
Thin walls - 1 cell layer
Semi permeable membranes - 1 cell layer
Function of capillaries
Allow exchange of materials between blood & tissues
gases
nutrients
metabolic byproducts/wastes
Function of veins
Carry blood back to the heart
Blood Pressure Formula
Cardiac Output x Peripheral Resistance
Venous Blood Flow
Skeletal Muscle Action
Respiratory Movements
Venous Constriction
Main blood vessel leaving the heart
The Aorta & it's branches
Longest vein in body
Great Saphenous - associated with varicose veins, when valves are not working properly
Function of Superior Vena Cava
Drains upper body into R atrium
Function of Inferior Vena Cava
Drains lower body into R atrium
Function of Blood
Transportation of substances - oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, hormones, wastes,
Body Temperature Regulation
Aids Homeostasis
Protection
Composition of Blood
Cellular Components (45%)
Red blood cells, white blood cells & platelets
Plasma (55%) Liquid, water, proteins, nutrients, hormones, gases
Structure of Red Blood Cells
Bioconcave Disc
Anucleated (drops nucleus @ maturity)
Flexible, elastic cell membrane
Function of Red Blood Cells
Responsible for providing oxygen to tissues and partly for recovering carbon dioxide produced as waste
Erythropoiesis
Red Blood Cell Production process
Develop in bone marrow & stem cells
Monitored by kidneys
RBC life span
120 days on average
Leukocytes
White Blood Cells
Granulocytes
Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils
Neutrophils
54-62% of circulating WBCs
Highly active phagocytic cells
Short lifespan, apprx 12 hrs
Eosinophils
1-3% of circulating WBCs
Weakly phagocytic
Involved in parasitic infections & allergic reactions
Agranulocytes
Monocytes
Lymphocytes
Monocytes
3-9% of circulating WBC
Largest blood cell
Lymphocytes
25-33% of circulating WBC
Longest lifespan
Involved in process of immunity

Layers of the heart wall
Epicardium - Outer Layer
Myocardium - Muscle Layer
Endocardium - Inner layer
Thrombocytes
Blood Platelets
Structure of Blood Platelets
Thrombocytes
Help close breaks in damaged blood vessels & initiate the formation of blood clots
Development of Blood Platelets
Thrombocytes
Derived from large cells found in the bone marrow called megakaryocytes
Define Hemostatis
The stoppage of bleeding
Describe Fibrinogen/Fibrin
Blood clotting factors
Fibriogen is found in plasma - when combined with thrombin, turns into fibrin (thread like structures)
Factors that prevent coagulation
Heparin
Medications
Good/Healthy blood flow
Smooth inner layer of vessel
A problem w/ clotting factors or platelets
Factors that increase coagulation probability
Medications
A problem w/ clotting factors or platelets
Rough inner layer of vessels
Slow blood flow
Type A Blood composition
Type A antigen
Anti B antibodies
Type B Blood composition
Type B antigen
Anti A antibodies
Type AB Blood composition
Type AV antigens
NO antibodies
Type O Blood Composition
NO antigen
Anti A & Anti B antibodies
What is the strongest chamber of the heart & why?
Left Ventricle - systemic circulation
What is known as the pacemaker of the heart?
SA Node
List general effects of massage
Decreased blood pressure
Increased parasympathetic activity
Increase blood flow
Which branch of the Autonomic Nervous System innervates blood vessel walls causing the smooth muscle to contract
Sympathetic Nervous System
Name 3 differences between arteries & veins
Arteries have thicker muscle layer
Veins have wider lumens
Veins have valves
Name the smallest blood vessels
Capillaries
Blood is kept flowing in one directions by the presence of
Valves
Veins rely primarily on ________ to return blood to the heart?
Muscular contraction
The cellular component of blood that is concerned with control of bleeding & formation of clots is____
Platelet
The most numerous type of white blood cell
Neutrophil
Name to formed element of blood that is essential to gas exchange
Red Blood Cells
When does a platelet plug begin to form?
When exposed to rough surfaces
Describe Lymphatic Vessels
Similar to veins, but thinner & more delicate
They have valves to prevent backflow
No muscular layer, rely on muscular contraction
Describe Collecting Ducts
Trunks will further drain into 2 larger vessels, the R Lymphatic Duct & Thoracic Duct
Lymph is returned to circulation via these vessels
Describe the flow of lymph
Like blood in veins, lymph is under low pressure & requires external forces to flow
Outside forces that assist in lymph flow
Muscular Contraction
Breathing
(valves prevent backflow)
How might massage affect lymph drainage?
Effleurage toward heart, can reduce edema
What happens if lymph vessel is blocked?
Edema will result
Locations of Lymph Nodes
Axillary
Inguinal
Cervical
Occipital
When are lymph nodes considered endangerment sites?
When they are enlarged, due to infection or other disease processes
What is the danger when lymph nodes are removed?
Pathogen or cancer cells may be spread into lymph circulation
Funtion of Spleen
Cleansing blood of impurities by filtration & phagocytosis - destroying old RBCs, producing RBCs before birth & emergency reservoir of blood
Other Lymphatic Tissue Sites & their locations
Palantine
Pharyngeal (Adenoids)
LIngual Tonsils

Located in the oral cavity & pharynx
Non-Specific Defenses against infection
Mechanical Barries
Species Resistance
Chemical Barriers
Natural Killer NK cells
Phagocytosis
Fever
Inflamation
List mechanical barrier non-specific defenses
Skin
Mucous membranes
Describe Interferon
Chemical Barrier Non-specific defense
Interferon - small proteins secreted by cells attacked by viruses. Proteins attach to membranes of non infected cells. Cells synthesize proteins that interfere w/ virus's ability to multiply in healthy cells
Describe the progression of Inflammation non-specific defense
Acute Vascular Response - blood vessels react
Immediate Cellular Response - 1st cells arrive
Long-term Cellular Response - next cells to arrive
Maturation & Resolution - scar tissue formation
Specific defenses against infection
The Immune System - comprised of Lymphocyte cells that can recognize & organize an attack against specific foreign substances
Describe antigens
ID markers found on a cell's membrane
Functions of Lymphocytes
Cellular immune response (cell mediated immunity)
Humoral immune response (antibody mediated immunity)
Which lymphocyte is responsible for Cellular Immune Response
T Lymphocytes are responsible for this cell to cell contact
Which lymphocyte is responsible for Humoral Immune Response
B Lymphocytes are responsible for this type of immunity - in blood stream, creating antibodies to interact w/ "bad guy"
Describe T Helper Cell
The pivotal cell, first T cell to be activated
Describe Memory Cells
T cells that don't respond to first exposure of foreign antigen, but remain as memory cells that immediately divide & create more cells upon subsequent exposure
Generally responsible for defense against certain viruses, cancer cells, intracellular parasites & organ imcompatibility with tissue transplantation
T-Cells
The immune system response
Primary Response - first exposure to foreign antigen, body learns how to attack, takes time
Secondary immune response - next exposure, memory B cells respond rapidly to produce immunoglobulins
List types of specific immunity
Naturally acquired active
Artificially acquired active
Natually acquied passive
Artificially acquired passive
Describe Naturally acquired active
Occurs during infection, body's natural production of immunity, lymphocytes are activated by antigens on pathogen's surface
Describe Artificially acquired active
Injected or orally administered antigens, man made vaccine, takes time for T&B cells to be activated, gives long lasting immunity
Describe Naturally acquired passive
Mother to child, breast milk & placenta - temporary
Describe Artificially acquired passive
Used during potentially fatal diseases - anti venom - temporary
In which circulatory structure will you NOT find valves?
Arteries
Lymph leaves the lymphatic system & rejoins the blood plasma @ ____________
R & L subclavian veins
When fluid is within a lymphatic vessel, that fluid is termed ________
Lymph
Lymph nodes are located along what structures?
Lymph vessels
List 3 potential endangerment sites relating to the lymph system
Cervical lymph nodes
Axillary
Suprtrochlea
What are the first T-Cells to be activated
T- Helper Cell
What is the result of lymph vessel blockage
Edema
What lies dormant until the same antigen is encountered
Memory Cells
What is the protein produced in response to viruses & Tumors
Interferon
Areas of lymphoid tissue located in small intestines
Peyer's Patches
Functional units of the tymphatic system
Lymph Nodes
Which cells are responsible for cellular immune response (cell mediated immunity)
T-Cells
List the 4 major symptoms of inflammation
redness
swelling
heat
pain
loss of function
How can a massage therapist positively affect lymph flow
Effleurage toward the heart
Getting chicken pox as a child is _____________
Natural, active
Getting vaccinated is __________
Artificial, active
Passed through placenta, breast milk
Natural, passive
Injection of gamma globulins before an overseas trip
Artificial, passive
Which organ removes dead red blood cells from the blood stream?
Spleen
Name 4 types of non specific immunity
Skin
Interferon
Fever
Chemical Barrier
NK cells
Inflammation
List the functions of the skin
Protection
ExcretionD
Sensation
Temp regulation
Layers of the skin
Epidermis - 5 layers, outermost, houses melanocytes
Dermis - living layer of skin, nerve receptors, blood supply, hair, muscles, glands
List the 4 major symptoms of inflammation
redness
swelling
heat
pain
loss of function
How can a massage therapist positively affect lymph flow
Effleurage toward the heart
Getting chicken pox as a child is _____________
Natural, active
Getting vaccinated is __________
Artificial, active
Passed through placenta, breast milk
Natural, passive
Injection of gamma globulins before an overseas trip
Artificial, passive
Which organ removes dead red blood cells from the blood stream?
Spleen
Name 4 types of non specific immunity
Skin
Interferon
Fever
Chemical Barrier
NK cells
Inflammation
List the functions of the skin
Protection
ExcretionD
Sensation
Temp regulation
Layers of the skin
Epidermis - 5 layers, outermost, houses melanocytes
Dermis - living layer of skin, nerve receptors, blood supply, hair, muscles, glands
Define Hormone
Organic substances secreted by a cell that have an effect on the functioning of another "target" cell
3 Methods of hormonal secretion regulation
Neural - nervous system control
Glandular - control by another endocrine gland
Humoral - Measuring the level of a substance , blood
Extra vessels in arms
Superficial, on top of muscle
Basilic
Cephalic
Hepatic Portal Venous System
Blood coming from digestive organs drain to liver before going to the heart