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92 Cards in this Set

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diaphysis
shaft of long bone, compact bone
long bone
epiphysis
end of long bone, spongy bone
long bone
periosteum
fibrous membrane which covers the bone
long bone
articular cartilage
thin layer of cartilage that covers epiphyseal surface
long bone
medullary cavity
marrow cavity, in diaphysis of long bone, yellow marrow
long bone
yellow marrow
fatty substance in medullary cavity
long bone
endosteum
membrane lining the medullary cavity in long bone
long bone
epiphyseal line
closed epiphyseal plate
long bone
epiphyseal plate
site of growth of long bone
long bone
cancellous bone
spongy bone
long bone
4 functions of periosteum
protection, lets BV in, growth in diameter (osetoblasts), point of attachment for tendons
long bone
How are most long bones formed in the body?
endochondral ossification
ossification
How do bones grow in length?
epiphyseal plate
How do bones grow in width?
appositional growth; osteoblasts in periostium
haversian canal
longitudinal canal in center of Haversian systems
contains BVs, nerves, and lymphatics
long bone
lamellae
concentric rings of calcified matrix around the Haverisan canal
long bone
lacunae
cavities b/w lamellae that contain osteocytes/chondrocytes
long bone
osteocytes
mature bone cells, in lacunae

NOT in ground bone slide
long bone
canaliculi
small canals radiate from Haversian canal, connect lacunae
long bone
haverisan system
each set of concentric rings
long bone
volkmann's canal
penetrates periosteum and run inward horizontally, connects with haversian canal
long bone
Where is articular cartilage and of what type of cartilage is does it consist?
covers epiphyseal surface
hyaline cartilage
long bone
chondrocytes
cartilage cells in lacunae in groups of 2-4, glossy matrix
long bone
hydroxyapatites
inorganic compound of long bone matrix
provides hardness
crystals made of various calcium salts
long bone
collagen fibers
protein
organic compound of long bone matrix
provides flexibility
long bone
frontal bone
1 forms forehead and upper part of orbits
2 sinuses
skull
parietal bone
2 forms sides and roof of cranium
skull
occipital bone
1 forms posterior part of skull and base of skull
skull
foramen magnum
occipital bone, large hole contains spinal cord
skull
occipital condyles
occipital bone, articulates with atlas
skull
temporal bone
2 forms side of skull and part of cranial floor
skull
zygomatic process
temporal bone
forms posterior part of cheekbone
skull
mastoid process
temporal bone
rounded projection posterior to ear
skull
styloid process
temporal bone
sharp process, directed inferiorly, attaches hyoid ligaments
skull
external auditory meatus
temporal bone
ear canal
skull
mandibular fossa
temporal bone
depression forms socket for mandible
skull
sphenoid bone
1 keystone of cranial floor
extends from one side of skull to other
forms side of skull, most of cranial floor, part of orbit
resembles 'flying bat'
skull
body of sphenoid bone
sphenoid bone
central portion
skull
greater wings
sphenoid bone
reach to each side of skull
form side of skull
skull
sella turcica
sphenoid bone
saddle shaped depression on superior surface of floor of skull
houses pituitary gland
skull
ethmoid bone
1 inner surface of cranium
anterior to sphenoid
forms nasal cavity, part of orbit
skull
perpendicular plate
ethmoid
can be seen anterior of nasal cavity
forms superior portion of nasal septum
skull
cribriform plate
ethmoid bone
perforated structure, seen superior view of cranial floor
allows passing of olfactory nerves
skull
crista galli
ethmoid
process directed superiorly from cribriform plate
anchors meninges
skull
superior nasal conchae
ethmoid
can not be seen anterior view of nasal cavity
lateral projection
skull
middle nasal conchae
ethmoid bone
lateral projection
helps to warm air
skull
coronal suture
joins frontal and parietal bones
sagittal suture
midline; joins two parietal bones
squamosal suture
joins temporal bone to parietal and sphenoid
lambdoidal suture
joins occipital bone
nasal bone
2 form bridge of nose
facial
maxillary bone
2 form upper jaw, part of orbit, anterior part of hard palate
facial
lacrimal bone
2 tiny, form medial walls of orbit
facial
zygomatic bone
2 articulate w/ temporal bone, form zygomatic arch (cheek bone)
facial
palatine bone
2 form posterior part of hard palate, small bit of orbit floor
facial
vomer
1 forms inferior part of nasal septum
shaped like plow share
facial
inferior nasal concha
2 OWN BONE (others part of ethmoid)
form lower part of lateral walls of nasal cavity
facial
mandible
1 lower jaw
ONLY movable bone in skull!
facial
body of mandible
main horizontal part, forms chin
facial
alveolar process
sockets for teeth in mandible
facial
mandibular condyle
mandible
articulates with manubular fossa of temporal bone
facial
wormian bone
extra bones in sutures
skull
paranasal sinus
mucus membrane-lined vacities within bones, drain into nasal cavity
frontal (anterior) fontanel
soft spot between frontal bones and parietal bones
babies
occipital (posterior) fontanel
soft spot between occipital bone and parietal bones
babies
mastoid (posterolateral) fontanel
2 soft spot above mastoid process of temporal bone
babies
sphenoidal (anterolateral) fontanel
2 soft spot near sphenoid bone
babies
scoliosis
lateral deviation, usually thoracic region
abnormal spine curvature
kyphosis
hunchback, exaggerated thoracic curve
abnormal spine curvature
lordosis
swayback, exaggerated lumbar curve
abnormal spine curvature
What are intervertebral discs composed of?
outer ring: fibrocartilage
inner: soft elastic core
What is fibrocartilage composed of?
collagen fibers and chondrocytes
body of vertebra
round, weight-bearing portion, most anterior
vertebrae
vertebral arch
encloses vertebral foramen

pedicles - lateral processes that form the arch
laminae - posterior processes that form the arch
vertebrae
pedicle
lateral processes that form the vertebral arch
vertebrae
lamina
posterior parts of the vertebral arch
vertebrae
vertebral foramen
enclosed by vertebral arch (every vertebra)
houses spinal cord
vertebrae
transverse processes of vertebra
2 lateral projections
vertebra
superior articular processes of vertebra
2 superior projections
vertebra
inferior articular processes of vertebra
2 inferior projections
vertebra
spinous process
single medial projection on vertebra, most posterior portion
vertebra
transverse foramen of vertebra
only present on cervical vert.
vertebra
atlas
C1
vertebra
axis
C2
vertebra
superior articular facets
on atlas, articulates with occipital condyles on occipital bone
vertebra
inferior articular facets
on atlas, articulates with C2
vertebra
dens
on axis, projects up through ring of atlas
vertebra
odontoid process
AKA dens
on axis, projects up through ring of atlas
vertebra
What passes through the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebra?
Blood vessels
vertebra
demifacets
on thoracic vert.
articulate with heads of ribs
vertebra
facets on vertebra
on thoracic vert.
articulate with tubercles of ribs
vertebra
sacrum
articulates superiorly with L5, inferiorly with coccyx, laterally with hip bones
fusion of 5 vertebrae
vertebra