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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
GENOCIDE
The systematic & planned extermination of an entire national, racial, political, or ethnic group
SOCOIAL DARWINISM
Social theory by Darwin on evolution applied to determine social class (strong survives, weak do not, Europeans the best)
COMMUNISM
System of government in which every one is equal, property is owned by the government (people)
POPULISM
A political philosophy supporting the right & power of the people in their struggle against the privledged elite
CAPITALISM
Economic system where means of production & distribution are privately or corporately owned, profits gained in free market
FASCISM
System of government,under the authority of a dictator, through suppression of the opposition by means of terror and censorship
COLLECTIVE SECURITY
System for international peace
EMBARGO
Prohibition by a government on certain/all trade w/ a foreign nation - method of pressuring a nation diplomatically
INFORMATION REVOLUTION
Revolution that allowed the increasing availability of information due to the use of things like computers, internet and other technologies
WORLD DEPRESSION
A worldwide economic downfall, started before 1929, but different time in differt countries. Basically, all countries were affected, worst hit was the industrialized countries
MOHANDAS GANDI
Political leader of India, played a key role in gaining independence for India through non-violent protest, boycott, etc..
ADOLF HITLER
Leader of Germany and Nazi Party. Started WWI in Europe.
VLADAMIR LENIN
Founder of Bolsheviks and leader of Russian Revolution. First leader of USSR.
MARGARET THATCHER
First woman to serve as British Prime Minister. Conservative - symbolized shift away from welfare economy in Great Britain.
MIKHAIL GORBACHEV
Soviet leader who brought an end to the Cold War through his foreign policy. Glasnost, Perestroika
GAMAL NASSER
Led social revolution in Egypt in 1952. Army officer, politician who served as Prime Minister (1954 - 56) & President 1958 - 1958). Nationalized the Suez Canal. Precipitated international crisis in 1956.
NELSON MANDELA
Led African National Congress in S. Africa. Imprisoned. Became S. Africa's 1st democratically elected president in 1994.
MAO TSE TUNG
Chinese communist leader. Came to power 1n 1949 & proclaimed People's Republic of China. Great Leap Forward, founding of communes, Cultural Revolution & established ties w/ west.
ALLIED POWERS
Created by Biskmarck in 1880s consisting of Germany, Austria-Hungary & Italy
ANSCHLUSS
Political union including 1 unifying Nazi Germany & Austria in 1938.
APPEASEMENT
Policy of granting concessions to potential enemies to maintain peace. i.e. Munich Conference of 1938)
BRITISH COMMONWEALTH
An association comprising the United Kingdom, its dependencies, & many former British colonies that are now sovereign states w/ a common allegience to the British crown.
CENTRAL POWERS
An alliance during WWII w/ Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy (though it left & became neutral), & Ottoman Empire (which joined after Italy left)
GREAT DEPRESSION
International economic crisis following WWI. Collapse of American stock market (1929), caused mass unemployment
HOLOCAUST
Term for Hitler's attempted genocide during WWII
LEAGUE OF NATIONS
International diplomatic & peace organization. Created post WWI at Versailles. One of chief goals of Pres. Woodrow Wilson. "Peace Negotitions"
MANDATE
Governments / regions / countries that Europeans were supposed to "manage" in the aftermath of WWI. Mostly Middle Eastern territories & parts of old Ottoman empire
PAN-SLAVIC MOVEMENT
1800s to unite Slavic people in Austria (Balkans), Ottoman Empire
POTSDAM CONFERENCE
Meeting of Allies (WWII)
REPARATIONS
The act of making amends / Germany's war payments as agreed to in the Versailles Treaty
RUSSIFICATION
Cultures under Russian Empire became a part of a Great Russian Culture - loyalty to the Czar, a form of nationalism
SPANISH CIVIL WAR
Conflict between supporters & opponents of the Spanish Republic; Nationalist victory due in part to "non-intervention" of Western democracies
TEHRAN CONFERENCE
Tehran, Iran conference involving USSR, US & Britain aimed at strengthening cooperation in WWII
TREATY OF BREST-LITOVSK
treaty between USSR & Central Powers, calling for Russia to w/draw from WWI & to surrender territory
TREATY OF VERSAILLES
Treaty signed in 1919, ended WWI
UNITED NATIONS
International organization founded in 1945 to promote peace, security & economic development
YALTA CONFERENCE
Mtg. b/tween USSR, US & Britain, demanded Germany's unconditional surrender & called for division of Germany
NATIONALISM
belief that nations will benefit from acting independently rather than collectively, emphasizing national rather than international goals
IMPERIALISM
Extending a nations authority over another nations economy/ politics
MILITARISM
predominance of armed forces in the administration / policy of a state (Japan during WWII)
AFRICANERS
Afrikaans speaking South African of European ancestry. especially 1 descended from 17th-Century Dutch settlers.
ALLIANCE FOR PROGRESS
U.S. assistance program for Latin America culture to counter revolutionary politics (1961)
APARTHEID
Dutch Afrikaners given control by the British & they practiced extreme racial segregation
AYATOLLAH
Religious teachers that opposed secular view / In Iran - Khomeini, Islamic fundamentalist who played a pivotal role in Iranian Revolution (1979) Khomeini - Shi'te
BERLIN WALL
symbol of the Iron Curtain (separate E. Berlin from West Berlin) prevented E. Berliners access to West / came down in 1989
BRINKMANSHIP
Intro. during Cold War, policy or practice, esp. in international politics & foreign policy, of pushing dangerous situation to brink of disaster in order to achieve most advantageous outcome by forcing opposition to make concessions. During Cold War - threat of nuclear force was often used as deterrent
COALTION
Allaince b/tn entities (nations, states, groups). US used diplomacy to create a wide coalition of support. In Post Cold War war alliances & coalitions were always shifting. OPEC is most successful coalition in history. After WWII - coalition gov't in China encouraged, but communists won in 1949
COLD WAR
US (democracy) vs. Soviet Union (totalitarian communist). Lasted nearly 50 years, 1945 - to early 1990's. US & Soviets vied for global domination & tried to pull the rest of the world into the conflict. Arms race b/t 2 nations
COLLECTIVIZATION
Part of Stalin's Five Year Plans / took over private farms & combined them into state-owned enterprises & created large, nationalized factories
CONTAINMENT
Where the US prevented spread of Communism by estblishing the Truman Doctrine to aid nations threatened by communism
CUBAN MISSLE CRISIS
1962 - Soviets installing missles in Cuba & Pres. Kennedy established naval blockade around Cuba. If missles were launched US would retaliate against Soviet Union. Soviets backed down & Americans promised not to invade Cuba.
CULTURAL REVOLUTION
Goal - discourage a privlieged rules class from forming, he instituted reforms that erased any influence from West, intellectuals were sent to collective farms for "cultural retraining", political dissidents were imprisoned or killed. Mao's "Little Red Book" became a symbol of forced egalitarianism.
FIVE YEAR PLANS
Stalin discarded New Economic Policy (NEP) OF Russia & imposed the 5 Year Plan(s) & collectivization played a huge part
GENEVA CONFERENCE
France lost battle at Dien Bien Phu, signed a treaty in 1954. Nations of Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam were created & Vietnam was divided north / south - elections followed in 2 years
GLASNOST
Gorbachev came to pwr in Soviet Union (1985)- instituted policies of GLASNOST (opennes) & urger PERESTROIKA (restructuring) of Soviet econoomy
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT
Created in India in 1935 after Ghandi was jailed & it increased suffrage / provinicial gov't to Indian leaders
GREAT LEAP FORWARD
late 1950s - huge communes created to catapult Chinese revolution towards goal of true Marxist state. Local gov'ts. couldn't produce the huge amount of agricultural quotas demanded by the central gov't., lied about production, leading to starvation & 30 million deaths
GUOMINDANG
Chinese Nationalist Party founded by Sun Yat-sen in 1919. Drew support mainly from local warlords, Initially formed an alliance w/Communists in 1924 & after 1925 was dominated by Chaing Kai-shek
IRON CURTIN
After WWI, Churchill coined the phrase to describe the divison b/tn free & Communist societies that was occuring in Europe