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37 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Iron Metallurgy
-Experimentation began as early as the fourth millennium BCE
-Mesopotamians manufactured effective iron and bronze tools and weapons by 1000 BCE
-Craftsmen added carbon to iron to increase strength and produce harder and sharper edges
-Iron metallurgy spread from Mesopotamia to Anatolia, Egypt, North Africa, and other regions(example of cultural diffusion)
Assyrians used iron tools to conquer Mesopotamia
Patriarchal Society
-Basis of Mesopotamian and Egyptian societies-- men made decisions regarding division of household chores among family members and arranged marriages
-Men dominated public life: ruled as kings and pharaohs; made decisions about public policy
-Evidence of patriarchal society seen in Hammurabi's Code, which entrusted men with all major decision making and judgment
-Women were punished for adultery by drowning; men could engage in consensual sexual relations outside of marriage without penalty
-A man could sell his wife and children into slavery to pay off debt
Origins of Writing
-Cuneiform, the earliest known writing, originated in Mesopotamia
-Record keeping for trade purposes became necessary as society became increasingly more complex
-Sumerians developed a writing system based on pictures (pictographs) in which symbols were made on wet clay and then baked
-Egyptians developed hieroglyphs - symbols that represent sounds and ideas
-One example of job specialization: the scribe, who prepared legal and other documents (developed as an occupation)
-Nomads who originally settled between Mesopotamia and Egypt
-Developed the world's first monotheistic religion -- the worship of Yahweh
-Hebrew Bible contains experiences and practices of Israelites during this period
- About 1300 BCE, led by Moses, went to Palestine, where they established a kingdom, under David and Solomon, extending from Syria to the Sinai Peninsula
-Used Mesopotamian law and politics as a guide- however, devotion to Yahweh, religious texts, and righteousness distinguished Hebrews from others
-Ten Commandments : religious teachings that also serve as an ethical code of behavior
-Lived between eastern Mediterranean Sea and Lebanon, earned a reputation as seafaring traders in the first millennium BCE
-Establishment of city-states throughout the Mediterranean allowed them to dominate trade in the Mediterranean basin
-Developed a writing system of twenty-two symbols representing sounds that aided in their long-distance commercial activities
-Their alphabet spread throughout the region as they traded products such as glass, textiles, and timber
-The Latin alphabet emerged out of the Phoenetic dialect
Indus River Civilization
-Originated in the Indus River Valley ca. 2500 BCE
-Two main cities, Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, provide archaeological evidence of this society's history
-The cities were well planned, fortified, and uniformly constructed -- that bricks' sizes were uniform throughout the Indus Valley indicates use of standardized weights and measures
-Extensive evidence of long-distance trade -- Indus Valley pottery has been found in Egypt; products from Sumer, such as olive oil, were traded in the region
-Speculation as to why this civilization declined continues because the written language remains untranslated
Indo-European Languages
-During the 18th and 19th centuries similarities between the languages of Europe, Persia, and India were noticed
-Ancient languages demonstrating these similarities are Sanskrit (sacred language of Aryan India), Old Persian, Greek, and Latin
-Explanation for similarities: speakers of Indo-European languages were all descendants of ancestors who spoke a common tongue and migrated from their original homeland
-Development of individual communities and lack of communication explain the evolution of different languages and dialects
-Originally pastoral nomads who spoke Indo-European languages
-Migrated south through the Hindu Kush mountain range ca. 1500 BCE and established small communities in northern India; replaced Harappan civilization
-Limited agriculture, depended on pastoral economy - prize dherds of cattle
-Domesticated horses: means of transportation and devastating war machine when attached to chariots
-Literary and religious texts were memorized and passed down as oral histories
-Over time developed a complex caste system, in large part influenced by contacts with indigenous peoples and invaders
Vedic Age
-A period in Indian history, between 1500 and 500 BCE when the Vedas were recorded; Rig Veda is the most important of these
-The Aryans recorded a number of literary and religious works in Sanskrit; the earliest works, the Vedas ("knowledge" or "wisdom"), a collection of songs, hymns, and prayers honoring Aryan gods, were handed down by Brahmin priests
-The Vedas also provide a view of Aryan society in India
- In this period, the Aryans and the Dravidians frequently fought among themselves -- there was no common centralized government
- Hundreds of chiefdoms based on herding communities and agricultural villages were established
-Permanent communities, relying more on agriculture than herding, were established into a regional kingdom ca. 1000- 500 BCE
-Social hierarchy based on caste maintained order and stability; also constructed a gender hierarchy based on a strong patriarchal society
Caste System
-Developed over time as the Aryans established settlements in India
-Four main varnas(social classes), originally formed around skin color
-Priests(Brahmins); warriors and aristocrats (kshatriya); cultivators, artisans; merchants (vaishyas); and landless peasants and serfs (shudras) -- later addition untouchables -- who performed unpleasant tasks (butchering animals, handling dead bodies)
-Occupation determines a persons' jati, or subcaste
-Castes and subcastes had a major impact on development of Hindu society complete with rules for interaction and intermarriage; severely limite d social mobility
-Although the caste system still continues to influence social practices of Hindus throughout India, barriers have been broken down in urban areas
-Vedas: a collection of hymns, songs, prayers, and rituals honoring various Aryan gods
-There are four Vedas - most important is the first, Rig Veda; with 1028 hymns, it was compiled between 1400 and 900 BCE
-Passed down orally until 600 BCE, when all four were recorded in Sanskrit
-Veda means "wisdom" or "knowledge" and refers to the knowledge priests need to carry out their tasks
-Vedas reveal a great deal about early Aryan society
Yellow River Civilization - Xia Dynasty
-Huang He means Yellow River and refers to the light colored loess soil that it picks up and deposits on the riverbank
-Unpredictable flooding led to its nickname, China's sorrow
-Regular rains and fertile soil eliminated the need for a n extensive irrigation system and instead water-control systems were developed
-Legendary Xia dynasty first attempted to organize public life on large scale -- established the precedent for hereditary monarchial rule in China
-Legendary founder, Yu, initiated flood-control projects, organized large-scale public works, and set up formal government
Shang Dynasty
-Earliest recorded dynasty(1750-027 BCE); rise and success based on technology, especially bronze
-Shang controlled production of bronze by monopolizing mine sand employing craftsmen
-Using a well-armed military, the Shang extended control to northeastern China
-Kings controlled surplus agriculture as well as an extensive network of as many as 1000 local towns
-Built extensive and lavish tombs for emperors
-Practiced ancestor worship; used oracle bones to divine the future
Chou Dynasty
-Ruled by proclamation; military forces and allies disseminated laws and justice
-Allied with Shang and adopted customs and culture and then overthrew Shang king
-All power and loyalty transferred to Zhou dynasty
-Zhou theory of politics: events of heaven and earth are closely related (see Mandate of Heaven card)
-Zhou cultural achievements: poetry, history, rituals, political essays, morals, religion, and philosophy
-Most writings lost, but book of songs preserved by early zhou literature
Warring States
-Time of disunity for China (403-221 BCE); many independent states adopted Legalist philosophies as the basis for their rule
-Legalism helped the State of Qin to gain control and unify China
-Turmoil forced Chinese to become introspective in an attempt to bring peace and unity to China
- Development of three significant schools of thought- Confucianism, Legalism, Daoism -- this period is also referred to as the Hundred Schools of Thought
-Olmecs (means rubber people) are named after trees from the region in which they flourished
-Centers of Olmec society: San Lorenzo, La Venta, and Tres Zapotes in Central America
-Adequate rainfall allowed for the construction of drainage; irrigation systems led to abundant harvests
-Authoritarian rule led to the creation of extensive public works projects, including altars, temples, pyramids, and tombs
-Famous sculpture: gigantic human heads
Mayan Civilization
-Society located in present-day southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and El Salvador; classical Maya ruled from ca. 300-900 CE
-Terrace farming was developed to capture rainwater and silt to increase soil fertility and hence agricultural production: cotton, maize, cacao
-Achievements:elaborate system of writing, accurate calendar(365 days), and the concept of zero
-Solar year (365 days) set agricultural patterns, and ritual year (260 days) set daily activities and divided the year into 13 months and 20 days each
Mayan Culture
-Built 80 large ceremonial centers, which included pyramids, palaces, and temples; large centers included Palenque, Chichen Itza, and Tikal, the latter with a population of approximately 40000 people and the Temple of the Jaguar
-Approximately 800 CE people abandoned their cities, possibly as a result of civil war, internal divisions, invasions, or natural disasters
-City built in Central Mexico because of the abundant supplies of Fish; developed agriculture by 500 BCE, rapid expansion after 200 BCE
-At height(approximately 400-600 CE) 200000 people
-Two most important monuments: colossal pyramids of the sun and the moon
-Artwork suggests a theocratic government- priests were crucial to the survival of society- kept calendar and scheduled planting and harvesting
-Chavin cult began after 1000 BCE, peaked in popularity 900 to 800 BCE, spread through Peru, and vanished approximately 300 BCE
-Cult probably arose when maize became an important crop in South America because it was needed to support a large population, the cult may have been designed to promote fertility and abundant harvests
-Achievements include large temple complexes, elaborate works of art, fishing nets, experimentation with minerals, techniques of gold, silver, and copper metallurgy used in the creation of jewelry and small tools
Achaemenid Empire
-Includes the Medes and the Persians, both people of sizable military power and equestrian skills
-Cyprus, an Achaemenid (reigned 558-530 BCE), founded Persian imperial empire -- at height spread form India to the borders of Egypt
-Darius (reigned 521-486 BCE) younger kinsmen of Cyrus, extended the empire from the Indus River in the east to the Aegean Sea in the west, from Armenia in the north to the first waterfall of the Nile River in the south
-Darius was more important as an administrator than a conqueror because of the size of the empire he managed. He also established a new capital, Persepolis, which became the center of the Persian Empire.
Achaemenid Adminstration
-Government relied on a balance between central adminstration and locally appointed governors
-Darius divided the empire into 23 satrapies- administrative and taxation districts governed by satraps- in which he regularized tax levies and standardized laws (he did not try to push direct rule on their subjects)
-To ensure local provinces did not become too powerful, each satrapy was assigned a group of military officers and tax collectors who checked the satrap's power and independence and imperial spies, trained as watchdogs for the king, conducted surprise audits
-Built extensive roads : Persian Royal Road (1600 miles)-- from Ephesus on the Aegean to Sardis in Anatolia to Susa in Iran - facilitated trade
-Organized a courier service and built postal stations approximately every 25 to 30 miles along the Royal Road
Persian Wars
-Fought between Greeks and Achaemenids(500-479 BCE)- led to demise of the empire began when Ionian Greek cities revolted against their governors
-Greeks believed that the Persians were uncivilized
-Herodotus(born ca. 484 BCE), the great source of knowledge of the history of the wars
-Persian use of unlimited manpower and resources earned them the reputation as one of the greatest militaries in history
-Delian League (led by Athens) formed to discourage future Persian agression
-Darius put down rebellions and reasserted Achaemenid power but ultimately lost to the Athenian army of 10000 men at the Battle of Marathon (490 BCE)
Society in Classical Persia
-In the cities free classes included priests, priestesses, artisans, craftsmen, merchants, and low-ranking civil servants
-Women worked in textile production and received rations of wine, beer, and sometimes meat for their labor
-Slaves were acquired through one of two sources: prisoners of war or civilians who tried to rebel against the imperial government - either way, slave status deprived individuals of personal freedom
Government in Classical Persia
-Sophisticated government led to the development of a new class of educated bureaucrats who played an important role in the daily affairs of the empire
-State-owned slaves provided labor for large-scale construction projects: roads, irrigation systems, city walls, and palaces
Economics of Classical Persia
-Agriculture was the foundation of the Persian economy - surpluses were necessary to support military forces, government administrators, and residents in the cities
-Empire controlled fertile land in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Anatolia, and northern India
-Imperial court consumed almost 800000 liters of grain per year, in addition to vegetables, fruits, meat, poultry, fish , oil, beer, wine, and textiles
-Persian Royal Roade and sea routes through the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, and Arabian Sea all assisted in trade throughout the empire
-Markets in large cities, such as Babylon, also housed banks and companies that invested capital in commercial ventures
-A religion based on the teachings of Zarathustra, who left his family at the age of twenty in search of wisdom; after 10 years he proclaimed that visions revealed to him the supreme god, whom he called Ahura Mazda ("wise lord"); this supreme being had chosen him to be his prophet and spread his message
-Major belief: the material world is a blessing, teachings of Ahura Mazda allow enjoyment of everything the world has to offer(wealth, sexual pleasure, and social status) - but in moderation
-Influence of Zoroastrian religion can be found in Judaism and Christianity, for example, the concept of good and evil
-Lived in China during the Warring States period and sought to restore order to China
- A strong-willed man, who often disagreed with the Chinese government
-Left province of Lu in search of chance at promotion, traveled for 10 years, and returned fruitless and died 5 years later
-An educator and a political adviser
-Students recorded his teachings in the Analects, which had a large impact on Chinese government and culture
-Believed in 5 constant relationships - between parent and child, husband and wife, older sibling and younger sibling, older friend and younger friend, and ruler and subject -- each person in the relationship had a responsibility to the other; one was superior and the other was inferior
-One of the major philosophies that emerged from the Hundred Schools of Thought
-Does not address philosophical or religious questions or the structure of the state. Just wanted to end the Warring States period by finding a balance.
-The best way to promote good government is to hire people who were well educated and conscientious - focused on the formation of junzi ("superior individuals"); Junzi looked at public affairs from many different angles and with unclouded judgment and thereby were able to bring order and stability to society
-According to Confucius, Juniz possessed personal qualities such as ren, li, and xiao
-Ren- courteousness, respectfulness, diligence, loyalty; li- a sense of propriety, traditionally appropriate behavior; and xiao - filial piety, respect by children for parents and other elders
-learning was important, but Confucius also stressed the importance of moral integrity and fair judgment
Daoist came up with an alternative solution to end the Warring States period -- contrary to Confucian beliefs, Daoists reflected in an effort to understand natural principles that governed the world and to achieve harmony with nature
-Central concept: dao("the way" or "the way of nature" or "the way of the cosmos") is seen as a passive force and usually referenced in a negative connotation -- like water it is soft yet can also erode the strongest rocks
-humans should stop trying to achieve personal goals and live very simply in order to achieve harmony with nature
-Wuwei: important moral trait whereby people remove themselves from worldly affairs - translates in political affairs as "less is more"
-Ideal societal structure would consist of tiny, self-sufficient communities
-One of the major philosophies that emerged from the Hundred Schools of Thought during the Warring States period
-Based on the goal of expanding and strengthening the state at all costs - it is described as ruthless and efficient
-Strict laws with harsh punishments lessen the number and severity of crimes
-Notable people: Shang Yang(contributer to The Book of Lord Shang) and Han Feizi
-Government strength lies in its agriculture and military -- therefore those two areas demanded the highest number of recruits; government discouraged other career paths(merchants, educators, poets, philosophers)
-Community has a collective responsibility for the law -- people should watch each other closely
-Used by the Qin dynasty, led by Shi Huangdi, to end Warring States period
Qin Dynasty
-Used Legalist philosophy to restore order and stability to China and end the Warring States period
- Gave peasants land rights to farm remote territories, a practice that weakened social hierarchy
-Centralized bureaucracy ruled the state
-Qin expanded their empire, attacking one province at a time and unifying China
-Great achievenments: standardized weights and measures, script
--Short-lived because of strict laws and harsh punishments
Shi Huangdi
-Self-proclaimed "first emperor" of China- reigned fourteen years; established centralized rule through large scale political organization
-Central bureaucracy - run from capital at Xianyang - was divided into administrative provinces and districts, each headed by an officer appointed by the emperor
-To Centralize power, disarmed local military forces; built roads to enhance and expedite communication and movement of armies; standardized laws, currencies, weights and measures, and Chinese script; and built defensive walls, including linking sections of the Great Wall
-Executed anyone who criticized his regime- burned 460 Confucian scholars alive for their critical comments
-Forced millions of laborers to work on public works projects, including palaces, roads, bridges, irrigation systems, defensive walls, and a tomb for himself
Early Han Dynasty
-Claiming the "mandate of heaven" Liu Bang centralized rule using persistence and methodical planning; started the longest lasting Chinese dynasty -- the Han (206BCE-220CE)
Emperors ruled from Chang'an, with its imperial palace, busy markets, and parks
-Han Wudi ,the martial emperor, ruled the Han from 141 to 87 BCE with two goals: to centralize governmental power and to expand the empire. He used Legalist principles as the guidelines for his government
-Wudi appointed imperial officers in provinces to enforce laws and levy taxes on agriculture, trade, and craft industries
-Demand for Chinese silk in India, Persia, Mesopotamia, and the Roman Empire led to development of the trade routes (the silk roads)
-Wudi exercised tremendous government control over the buildiing of roads and canals to increase trade and communication. Government also controlled production of essential goods: iron, salt, and liquor.
Emperor Wudi
-Han emperor who had a problem recruiting qualified people for government posts because there was no uniform system of public education
-established a imperial university to educate government officials
-Although the government was based on Legalist principles, the university focused its instruction on Confucianism out of necessity -- it was the only Chinese belief system developed enough to establish a curriculum
-Enrollment began at 3000 students and rose to more than 30000 students during the later Han
-Policy of the imperial expansion led to invasion in Vietnam and Korea (which then had to pay tribute to Han China) and battles with Xiongnu, nomads from Asia
-The Han conquered everyone they challenged
Later Han Dynasty
-Separated from the former Han as a result of a temporary loss of power from 9 to 23 CE, the later Han lasted from 25 to 220 CE
-Moved capital from Changan east to Luoyang
-Ignoring the problem of inequitable land distribution led to banditry and rebellions led by disgruntled peasants
-The Yellow Turban uprising(rebels wore yellow headgear): government used the military to suppress rebellions but the collective efforts of peasants weakened the Han Dynasty - factions developed in courts that effected the central government
-This internal weakness led to the downfall of the empire, which was divided into several large kingdoms
Fall of the Han Dynasty
-Collapsed- divisions within the ruling elite limited the effectiveness of the government
-Issues: land distribution, private armies, unrest, economic decline
-Rise in epidemics late second, early third centuries led to the Yellow Turban Rebellion (rebels' yellow turbans represented their peasant status and their ties to the Earth)
-Dynasty in 220 CE formally ended