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145 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define sagittal plane
divides the body into r and l portions
Define phospholipid bilayer
contains protein and carbohydrate complexes (glydoproteins), and cholesterol
Define Organelles
membrane bound structure inside cytoplasm. Which include mitochondira, Rough ER, smoothe ER, ribosomes, Golgi complex, lysomes, and peroxisomes.
Define mitochondria
rod shaped structures that contain enzymes that chemically break down food
Define ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) the major source of energy in the cell
Define Rough endoplasmic reticulum
appears as a group of membrane layers, contains ribosomes and is involved in protein systhesis
Define Golgi complex
appears as a group of membrane layer, and is involved in modifying and sorting proteins that are to be secreted or released by the cell
Define Lysosomes
are organelles that digest or breakdown foreign particles
Define flagellum
is a single, long projection from the surface of the cell (human sperm have a flagellum)
Define cilia
are many small-hair like projection from the surface of a cell (are seen in human respiratory tract)
Define body tissue
Epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous
Define Simple Squamous Epithelia
Lines the air sacs of the lung and permit the easy exchange of oxygen and other gases across it.
Define Simple Cubodial Epithelia
Lines the kidney and smaller ducts of many glands
Define Simple Colimnar Epithelia
line part of the GI tract
Define Dermis
inner thicker layer of skin CT
Define Stratum Corneum
outer layer of the epidermis and consists of a layer of dead cells with keratin, a waterproof substance
Define papillary layer
upper layer of the dermis, which is thick like in the palms and soles
Define Dermal papilla
increased papillary layer by finger like projections
Define Meissner's Corpuscles
is found in dermal papilla and is sensitive to touch
Define Reticular layer
inner layer of dermis and contains pacinian corpuscles
Define pacinian corpuscles
contains nerve endings sensitive to pressure
Define intracellular fluid (ICF)
fluid with the cells
Define diffusion
A random movement of molecules that results in net movement of the molecule from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Define Facillitated diffusion
A carrier-mediated transport that moves molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Define Osmosis
is diffusion of water
Define Active transport
is carrier-mediated transport that moves molecules across an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration
Define flitration (passive transport)
is the passive movement of molecules across the cell membrane from an area of high pressure to and area of low pressure
Define Nuclear membrane (aka nuclear envelope)
Double membrane structure consisting of two layers of phospholipids similar to the plasma membrane.
Define Glial cells
located within the CNS and include astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia, and ependymal cells. Purpose of glia cells is support
Define astrocytes
Provide framework for neurons and support their metabolism
Define Oligodendrocytes
Makes the myelin for axons in CNS
Define Schwann cells
Major glial cell in the PNS, myelinates neurons in the PNS.
Define Synapse
specialized junction between two neurons
Define insulation of axon
the myelin sheath is an insulation formed by the schwann cells around axons. The myelin sheath interrupts the continuous conduction of a nerve impulse along the axon
Define gap junction
narrow tunnels between cells that consisits of proteins call connexons. These junctions allow communication between cells through the exchange of materials or the transmission of electrical impulses
Define Ribosomes
Subunit of organelles, constructed by nucleic acid
Define cerebellum
Coordinates movement and maintains balance of the body. Included in the forebrain
Define hypothalamus
Regulates such functions as temperatur, thirst, food intake, sexual behavior, pleasure, and emotions and produces and releases hormones
Define Pituitary
Considered part of the hypothalamus and produces hormones as well
Define iris
Smooth and pigmented eye muscle that controls the size of the pupil. The iris also determines eye color
Define photoreceptors
Rods & cones respond to light stimuli
Define Organ of Corti
Sound fluid moves in the cochlea of the inner ear and deforms hair cells inside the organ of corti located in the cochlea
Define Acteylcholine
Neurotransmitter released at a nueromuscular junction
Define Growth hormone (GH)
is responsible for growth, and thyroid-stimulating hormone affects the release of the thyroid hormones
Define Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)
affects the release of steroids (sex hormones and aldosterone) from the adrenal cortex
Define triiododthyronine (T3)
a thyroid hormone, produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid
Define Calcitonin
Produced bye the thyroid gland plays a major role in decreasing the blood calcium concentration when it becomes elevated.
Define thyroid stimulating hormones (TSH)
Affects the release of thyroid homones
Define Aldosterone
hormone functioning in kidney regulation. Secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland. Without aldosterone potassium would be reabsorbed
Define Renin-angiotension mechanism
Stimulates aldosterone to act on the tubules to elevate ion reabsorption
Define Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
secreted by the parathyroid gland, major regulator of blood calcium levels. Controls blood calcium by controlling calcium uptake or loss of bone
Define Adrenal cortex
Outer region of the adrenal glands and secrets mineralcocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens
Define Mineralcorticoids
(AKA Aldosterone
promoted reabsorption by the kidney
Define Glucocorticoids (AKA Cortisol)
is a permissive hormone that effects increasing the blood level of glucose and suppressing inflammation caused by the immune system. Stress stimulates the release.
Define Adrenal Medulla
Inner region of the adrenal gland and secretes the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine
Define Estrogen
Maintains the structure of the female reproductive tract, promotes egg maturation, and is responsible for the female secondary characteristics
Define Testosterone
produced bye the male testes, maintains the male reproductive tract, promotes sperm production, and is responsible for the male secondary characteristics
Define Penis
Male reproductive structure
Define Semen
AKA Alkaline (pH 7.5-8.0)
Milky contains fructose (primary energy source for sperm) and prostaglandins (promotes contraction of smooth muscle in male and female repro tracts.)
Define clitoris
Small mass of erectile tissue and nerves anterior to the labia minora. Site of sexual stimulation in females.
Define Oxytocin
promotes uterine contractions directly and indirectly by promoting the release of prostaglandins.
Define Meiosis
A reduction division, producing daughter cells that contain half the genetic information of the parent cells.
Define Diabetes Insupidus
characterized by production of a large amount of dilute urine, results from hyposecretion of ADH
Define ADH (Antiduiretic hormone)
Increase water absorption
Define Addison's disease
Results from hyposecretion of the hormones of the adrenal cortex.
Define Cushing's Syndrome
occurs when there is hypersecretion of the cortisol from the adrenal cortex
Define Tendons
Elevations allow attachment of tendons. Depressions provide a passageway for tendons
Define Axial skelton
Includes the skull, hyoid, vertbral column, sternum, and ribs
Define Appendicular skeleton
includes the bones of the shoulder or pectoral girdle, arms, wrists, hands, hipbones, upper legs, lower legs, ankles and feet
Define synovial joint (AKA Diarthortic)
is fully movable and conatains a space between the bones with articulatory cartilage. Classified as gliding, hinge, pivot, saddle, and ball and socket
Define Tetanus
Maximal muscle contractiion
Define Isometric Contraction
When a muscle develops force or tension at a constant muscle length. (ex. holding and object above head)
Define Isotonic Contraction
When a muscle tension remains constat as the length of the muscle shortens during contraction. (ex. lifting an object)
Define Frontal Bone (AKA Forehead)
1 bone inside cranium-protects brain as well as other organs, also provides attachment for muscles.
Define Sphenoid Bone
Temple area, 1 bone in cranium, protects brain as well as other organs, also provides attachment for muscles
Define Leukocytes (AKA White blood cells)
does not contain hemoglobin and they do play a majpr rp;e om tje body's immune response by ingesting foreign cells and dead matter.
Define Phagocytosis
The process of leukocytes
Define Mitral Valve
(AV valve/Atrioventricular vavle)
keeps blood flowing from the left atria into the left ventricle.
Define Tricuspid Valve (Right AV valve
keeps blood flowing from the right atria into the right ventricle
Define pulmonary valve
keeps blood flowing from the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery
Define Aortic valve
keeps blood flowing from the left ventricle into the aorta
Define P wave
corresponds to artrial depolarization. During this wave muscles of the atria are contracting
Define QRS complex
responds to ventricular depolarization and atria repolarization (recovery)
Define T wave
corresponds to ventricular repolarization
Define T-P interval
corresponds to the time when the heart is relaxing and filling with blood, known as diastole.
Define Arteries
Pressure reservoir responsible for the flow of blood when the heart is in diastole.
Define veins
have low pressure and resistance but can vasoconstrict because of smooth muscle in their walls
Define Pharnyx
during inspiration, air enters through the throat (pharynx). Food prevented from returning to the pharynx by the pharygoesophagel sphincter.
Define eccrine gland (sudoriferous glands)
occurs under most skin surfaces and secretes a watery solution through pores (openings aat the skins surface), which serve to cool the skin as it evaporates.
Define Apocrine glands (sudoriferous-sweat glands)
occurs under skins surfaces in the armpits and pubic regions (beginning at puberty), secretes a solution in response to stress or sexual excitement. The solutions is secreted into hair follicles.
Define Transitional Cells
ranges from flat to tall cells that can extend of compress in response to body movement
Define Dermal Papillae
finger-like projections
Define popliteal
dorsal side of patella
Define Acid Base balance
located in the body, associated with regulation of the hydrogen ion concentration in body fluids.
Define Chemical buffers
Solution containing two or more chemical compounds, which prevent substantial changes on the pH when either an acid or base enters the system
Define Trochanter
Two large protusions, leg and buttocks muscles attach to this
Define Diaphysis
Shaft of long bones
Define Aerobic respiration
Pyruvic acid (from glycolysis) is converted to lactic acid, no ATP or Oxygen is required. This process regenerates certain coenzymes necessary for glycolysis to continue. It is also indirectly responsible for production of two ATP's (during glycolysis)
Define EPSP Meissner's Corpuscle
Touch receptors receptors with encapsulated nerve endings located in the dermal paillae (near the surface) of the skin that detect surface pressure.
Define Pacinian callosum
encapsulated nerve receptors that detect deep pressure and are located in the subcutaneous layer below the skin.
Define Chroid plexus
absorbs light, contains blood vessels for eye structure
Define Corpus callosum
bridge of nerve fibers that connects two large hemispheres of the brain
Define respiratory acidosis
decrease in blood pH below 7.35 due to an elevation of blood carbonic acid or carbon dioxide levels
Define respiratory alkalosis
increase in blood pH above 7.45 due to a decrease in blood carbonic acid or carbon dioxide levels.
Define metabolic acidosis
decrease in blood pH below 7.35 due to and decrease in blood bicarbonate levels.
Define metabolic alkalosis
increases in blood pH above 7.45 due to an increase in blood bicarbonate levels.
Define human chronic gonadotropin
stimulates the release of luteinizing hormones
Define vagus nerve
plays a major role in the autonomic nervous system, which innervates smooth and cardiac muscle.
Define wernicke's area
an area that interprets the meaning of speech by recognizing spoken works into thoughts
Define IPSP (inibitory postsynaptic potential)
a hyperpolarizing postsynaptic potential is inhibitory then it is termed IPSP.
Define Fenestrated capillaries
plasma membranes of their endothelial cells have many frenestrations (windows). Found in kidneys, villi of the small intestine, choriod plexuses of the ventricles in the brain, cicliary processes fo the eyes, and endocrine glands.
Define Blastocyst formation
(has to do with reproduction and stages of fetal development) cell develped into a hollow ball of cells that enters the uterine cavity
Define Catbolism
the breaking down of complex molecules to release energy, part of metabolism related to respiration and not contributing to growth.
Define Anabolism
biochemical process involved in the formation of body tissue and the storage of energy; part of the metabolism that leads to growth
Define enterogastric reflex
slows down stomach emptying
Define kupffer cells
phagocytic cells which line the liver sinusoids
Define hepatocytes
most common cells in liver
Define residual volume
amount of air remaining in lungs after the most forceful expiration
Define Cholecystokinin
Digestive hormone release with secretion when food from the stomach reaches the first part of the small intestine
Define Prolactin (PRL)
is a single-chain protein hormone closely related to growth hormone. it is secreted by so called lactorophs in the anterior pituitary. Stimulates the production of mild
Define Cholinergic
a type of nerve fiber that releases acetycholine from the axon terminal when impulses are transmitted across synapses; contrast to adrenergic
Define pH scale
pH balance in the body, normal pH is 7.35-7.45. Maintained by the lungs (as a by product of exhalation), and the kidneys.
Define Larynx
During inspiration air enters through the voice box (larynx). Covered by glottis and epiglottis to prevent food from entering.
Define Aveolus
Terminal branch of the lung and the basic functional unit of the respiratory system
Define surfactant
phospholipid that reduces the tendency of the alveoli to recoil and collapse.
Define Pons
in the brain and cause contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles via the phrenic and intercostal nerves.
Define Vital capacity
is the sum of tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, and expiratory reserve volume.
Define Alveoli
The only site for gas exchange in the lungs
Define Medullary respiratory center
place that detects changes in ventilation
Define B-lymphocytes
Makes antibodies to specific antigens
Define T-lymphocytes
functions in cell-mediated immunity
Define scar tissue
develops if the tissue replacement involves collage deposition from connective tissue cells known as fibroblasts.
Define Gastrin
stimulates acid secretion by the stomach and the motility of the entire GI tract.
Define gylcolysis
is the breakdown of glucose to pyruvate and lqactate.
Define gylcogenolysis
is the breakdown of glycogen to glucose.
Define gluconeogenesis
is the synthesis of glucose as well as an example of an anbolism
Define ureter
there are 2 ureters
Define urinary bladder
there is one urinary bladder
Define micturation
involuntary urine
Define antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
increase water reabsorption by the collecting duct of the kidney
Define osmotic pressure
occurs when water moves into the body by osmosis, hydrostatic pressure (AKA Ostomic pressure) may build up inside the body.
Define Protein sythesis
the process that describes how enzymes and other proteins are made from DNA.
Define Give the steps in protein sythesis
There are 3 steps in this process:
1. Transcription: DNA molecules are used as a template to create RNA
2. RNA processing: Modifies the RNA molecule with deletions and additions
3. Translation: the processed RNA molecules are used to assemble amino acids into polypeptide
Define selective permeability
the cell membrane that has control over what can cross it, so that only certain molecules can enter or exit the cell.
Define Partial Pressure O2
When you breathe in, the partial pressure of oxygen that is exerted within the alveoli (tiny air sacs) thus presses the oxygen into the circulatory system, and can be measure in the arterial system. (this one is PaO2)