Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Colonial Soldiers and British Officers
there is tension between them evident during the war, and the british and colonists complain about each other.
Paying for the War
Quakers refuse to pay; Pitt's promise to reimburse the colonies for their military expenses enraged the British. The British thought that it was outrageous to repay the Americans for defending themselves.
pontiac's Rebellion
indians call for repudiation of European culture, goods, and alliances; Pontiac, an Ottawa Indian, and other leaders forged an anti-British coalition that sacked 8 British forts ; Indians end up surrendering;
Proclamation of 1763
hoping to end froniter fighting, the british government issued the proclamation to assert royal control of land transactions, settlements, and trade of non Indians west of the AAppalachians and recognized existing Indian land titles everywhere west of the Proclamation line
writs of assistance controversy
to halt american trade with the enemy, Britain cracked down on colonial smuggling- royal governor of massachusetts audthorized the use of the writ of assistance to seize illegally imported goods. A general search warrant, the writ allowed authorities to enter any ship or building where there might be smuggled goods- only evidence required was suspicion; unconstitutional by English legal authorities.
James Otis and the British Constitution
merchants in boston hired otis to challenge the writ's of assistance constitutionality- goes to Massachusetts supreme court and argues that it is unconstitutional. court rules against him
Sugar Act (1764)
Britain passes sugar act to offset part of Brtain's military expenses- created new tension with colonies; it amended the Molasses Act of 1733 (which had a 6 pence p;er gallon duty for american importers); it was too high and they snuck it by paying off customs inspectors, so the sugar act brought the duty down to 3 pence per gallon, hoping that the colonists would pay now. brought a lot of stuff under imperial control; brought on new changes also- transfered cases of smuggling to vice admiralty courts, where the judges got 5 percent of confiscated cargo (swaying them towards a guilty decision), financial incentive; americans still didn't pay- in 1766- britain lowered it to 1 penny
Stamp Act (1765)
Britain still feels that colonists must give larger contribution, so they force colonists to pay their share of imperial expenses in the Stamp Act. Stamp Act made them use stamps for documents, wills, legal documents etc..- unlike the sugar act, which was an EXTERNAL tax levied on imports, the Stamp Act was an INTERNAL tax levied directly on property, goods and services in the colonies. Americans say that Parliament cannot tax British subjects unless tehy enjoyed representation in that body- he said they were virtually represented, which was retarted. stamp act demonstrated Parliament's indifference to their interests and the shallowness of virtual representation.
Patrick Henry
In 1765, political storm generated by the Stamp Act rumbled through teh colonies; Patrick Henry (29 year old from virginia) expressed the rising spirit of resistance- give me liberty or give me death bullshit. started the active resistance
Loyal Nine
In boston, middle class creates Loyal nine to fight the stamp act- they attacked the stamp distributors, who if resigned would not allow the stamp act to go into place- loyal nine propelled boston to front of resistance
Why does Boston Lead the Way?
Boston lived primarily by trade and Sugar Act really fucked em over- the heavy tax on molasses burdened rum producers and the act's trade restrictions dried up the wine-import business and interfered with tehir trade.
Ebenezer MacIntosh
after brawlers killed a child on Guy Fawkes Day, the two brawling groups united and teamed up (under Eb Mac) to go against the stamp distributor Andrew Oliver. They vandalized his property and he resigned
Andrew Oliver
Boston's stamp distributor that got his stuff vandalized by Ebenezer Macintosh
Sons of Liberty
In rhode island- they were a more violent opposition group
Disorder everywhere
New York's merchants in 1765 to boycott all British goods- was big because the colonies purchased 40% of Britain's manufacturers (orderly protest came in)
Stamp Act Congress Resolutions
Parliament revokes Stamp Acdt- then passes Declaratory Act, as a last resort measure by parliament, which said that parliament had the power to legislatre for the colonies "in all cases whatsoever"
nonimportation agreements
We boycott all British goods in response to Stamp Act
John Locke
John Locke, an enlightenment thinker, argued that people enjoyed the natural rights of life liberty and property; to form governments to protect these rights, people entered in a social contract- a government that encroached on natural rights broke its contract with the people.
Ideas of oppositionists
oppositionists were the group of political writers read widely in the colonies; they said parliament did not hold true interest of its constitutents.
Quartering Act (1765)
George III dismisses Rockingham government- summons William Pitts, who is respected by the colonists- his health collapses- townshend becomes leader; quartering act ordered colonial legislatures to pay for certain goods used by British soldiers stationed within their borders- candles, windowpanes, mattress straw, and a small liquor ration; it constituted an INDIRECT tax; new york refuses
Townshend Duties
The townshend duties taxed glass paint lead paper and tea imported into the colonies; its clear purpose was to collect money for the treasury; ulterior motive was that colonial legislatures controlled royal governors' salaries and could hang that over the governor when he voted. he was trying to strip the assemblies of the power of the purse.
John Dickinson's Letter From a Farmer
Resistance to the Townshend Duties was limited and weak until John Dickinson published essays saying that Parliament had no right to tax trade for the simple purpose of raising revenue. no tax could be put on someone until the elected representatives voted for it; convinced americans that stamp act= townshend acts
Samuel Adams
In 1768, Massachusetts assembly asks adams to draft a circular letter to other legislatures; he helped with sons of libery- his circular letter denounced taxation without represntaion adn the threat to self governance posed by aParliament's making governors and royal officials independent of the legislatures. British totally overreacted and saw rebellion, so they commanded that any body who endorsed it would be faced with consequences and any legislature that violated his instructions would be dissolved
Nonimportation (again)
as means of pressuring Parliament for repeal, nonimportation seemed especially promising because it offered an alternative to violence that would distress Britain's economy. merchants participated
John Wilkes
merchants and artisans of britain were hit hard by the nonimportation and John Wilkes led the protest to repeal the Townshend acts- they yelled at AGeorge III. He had a newspaper- got shut down- fled country- americans liked him
Daughters of Liberty
Women had been engaging more in the protests and stuff adn began to play bigger role; daughters of liberty, upperclass female patriots, played big role during Townshend crisis, they helped argue against tax on tea- helped the nonconsumption of tea
nonconsumption of tea- became popular- also extended to clothes and other goods-- women played big role in teh boycott- they made spinning wheels to make clothes instead of using British imports
American Board of Customs Commissioners
Townshend sought to increase revenues by extending British surveillance of colonial trade. induced parliament to create this board to enforce the navigation acts.
customs racketeering
after new laws from navigation acts make everything in ship cargo, not private property, the sailors get all their stuff taken by inspectors. The commissioners used this customs racketeering as legalized piracy that led to violence.
Liberty Incident
when customs agents seized colonial merchant John Hancock's ship Liberty on a technicality, a crowd assaulted customs officfials and blocked it from being towed. the mob drove the inspectors from the city. Hancock was a big wig and the British targeted him; very monumental case.
Troops sent to Boston
1700 troops sent to Boston in 1768 after violence
tactics of Sam Adams
Adams, using the Journal of the Times magazine to get word out about ongoing issues, exaggerated incidents and began making false accusations of abuses by the army and customs services, trying to spark outrage
Boston Massacre (1770)
customs informer fires shot at 11 yearold boy for throwing rocks at his house and kills him- sparks a organized procession for funeral to maximize the horror at the kid's death.... week later Crispus Attucks and a mob throws stuff at soldiers, they fire back adn kill 5 people.. there you have it boston massacre. Sam Adams orchestrated a martyr's funeral for the victims.
Gaspee Incident
British customs ship goes on Maine- colonists burn it.
Committees of Corespondence
Lord North tries to implement the old goal of paying royal governors from colonial pockets- sam adams makes request that every massachusetts community appoint people to exchange info and coordinate measures to defend colonial rights- these are the committees of correspondence
Townshend duties repealed
lord north comes in, keeps tea tax but townshend duties are gone to end the commercial boycott
frontier tensions
tensions in frontier expansion between colonies and indians and settlers. Proclamation of 1763 became weak guideline and wasn't enforced- colonists and britain gave up some lands to indians, then more tensionin kentucky and ohio- new hampshire settlers began known as the green mountain boys
The tea act
east india company about to become bankrupt; it was important in british imperial structure, so they had to save it; to do so they made tea act- the act elminated all import duties on tea entering england and lowered the selling price to consumers (in order to get americans to buy it). the act also allowed for the company to sell tea directly to consumers rather than through wholesalers.
Tea party
in response to passing of tea act, Sam adams and company took teh first ship that came into port and dumped the tea in the water (45 tons)
Coercive or intolerable Acts
after the tea party left the british enraged, the british inserted the Coercive acts, which along with teh quebec acts, became the intolerable acts. in them, the navy closed Boston harbor until dumped tea was repaid, hurting Boston economy- the second revoked massachusetts charterand made the colon's government less democratic- lastly, only one town meeting per year- also a new quartering act and administration of justice act
Quebec Act
it cemented Roman Catholicism as Quebec's official religion - it gave canada's governor new powers
First Continental Congress
in response to the intolerable acts, the committees of correspondence of every colony (not Georgia though) sent delegates to a continental congress in Philadelphia. goal was to defend american rights without resolving to war. continental congress endorsed the Suffolk REsolves, extreme statements of principle that proclaimed that the colonies owed no obedience to the coercive acts- also voted to boycott british goods adn to stop exporting goods there, this agreement (the boycotting one) was called the continental association. middle colonies were kind of against this non importation stuff because they were afraid of war. the delegates summarized their principles and demands in a petition to George III- gave Parliament right to control commerce but not to enforce taxes etc..... revolution begins brewing
loyalists to Britain that lived in US
in massaschussets, citizens collected arms and organized militia units, referred to as minutemen, who could respond instantly in an emergency.
Battles of lexington and concord
british government tells massachusetts governor to arrest patriot leaders- they had already fled, so Gage (the gov of mass) sense 700 brit soldiers to seize colonial military supplies in concord.Paul Revere alerted the minutemen and 70 of them faced off in lexington
Ford Ticonderoga
bunch of new englanders take over the fort so that tehy could use the captured cannon in the seige of boston
Second continental congress
congress reconvened- they agreed in peace and wanted to have a cease fire, a repeal of the coercive acts, and wanted to establish guarantees of American rights

voted to establish continental army with G DUb in charge
olive branch petition
peaceful little letter that the americans sent to britain in order to avoid war, however, britain lost more troops than colonies- got furious, and opened up a can of whoopass
Bunker Hill
the place of the battles where britain got heir ass kicked after lexington and concord
Gw and Continental Army
u betcha- we have an army now with the big man at the helm
Thomas Paine's common sense
Thomas paine was radical colonist who was very good at writing and encouraged the rebellion and wanted us to abandon our ties with britain
move toward independence
fervent and fast
TJ and the DOI
used it to justify America's separation from engalnd. it focused on George III, it argued that britain had violated its contract with teh colonists- giving them the right to break off; goal was to convince america that they could prosper without britain holding their hand