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44 Cards in this Set

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Marbury vs. Madison (1803)
established precedent of federal courts using judicial review
Dartmouth College vs. Woodward (1819)
made the contract clause of the Constitution a powerful instrument to protect property rights against state challenges
McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819)
established national supremacy of the Constitution over the power of the states
Gibbons vs. Ogden (1824)
increased federal power over interstate commerce by implying that anything concerning interstate trade could potentially be regulated by the fed. gov.
Barron vs. Baltimore (1833)
determined that the Bill of Rights applied only to the nat'l gov., not the state gov.s
Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896)
allowed separate but equal facilities based on race
Schenck vs. US (1919)
clear and present danger test for free speech under First Amendment
Gitlow vs. New York (1925)
declared that state limits on speech and press should not exceed federal limits
Smith vs. Allwright (1944)
the denying of African Americans the right to vote in a primary election was found to be a violation of the 15th Amendment
Dennis vs. United States (1951)
found Smith Act unconstitutional; one can advocate the overthrow of the gov. as long as not actively seeking a way to do so
Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)
declared school segregation unconstitutional; 'separate educational facilities are inherently unequal'
Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas 2 (1955)
ordered schools to desegregate 'with all due and deliberate speed'
Mapp vs. Ohio (1961)
established the exclusionary rule for police searches under the Fourth Amendment and that illegally obtained evidence cannot be used in a criminal trial
Engel vs. Vitale (1962)
prohibited state-sponsored recitation of prayer in public school through the establishment clause of the First Amendment
Heart of Atlanta Motel vs. United States
affirmation of power of Congress, through use of the commerce clause, to end segregation by law in the US
Baker vs. Carr (1962)
ordered state representative districts to be near as equal as possible: 'one man one vote'
Abbington vs. Schempp (1963)
prohibited devotional Bible reading by virtue of the establishment clause of the First Amendment
Gideon vs. Wainwright (1963)
states must provide a lawyer in a criminal trial to those who cannot afford one
New York Times vs. Sullivan (1964)
1st Amendment protects the publication of all statements (even false libel and slander) about the conduct of public officials except when statements are made w/ actual malice
Griswold vs. Connecticut (1965)
established the implied right of privacy in a birth control case through the Amendments 1,3,4,5,9,14
Miranda vs. Arizona (1966)
established verbal Miranda warnings (right to counsel and protection against self-incrimination) that must be given to a suspect during arrest and detention
Epperson vs. Arkansas (1968)
prohibited states from banning the teaching of evolution in public schools b/c that would violate the establishment clause and the free speech clause
Brandenburg vs. Ohio (1969)
Brandenburg made a speech at a KKK rally and was convicted under an Ohio criminal syndicism law- law was found unconstitutional since it violated right to free speech in Amendments 1 and 14
Swann vs. Charlotte-Meckenburg (1970)
ruled that the federal courts are constitutionally authorized to remedy state-imposed segregation w/ broad and flexible powers
Lemon vs. Kurtzman (1971)
established a 3-part test to determine establishment clause
1. law must have a secular purpose
2. law must neither advance nor inhibit religion
3. law must not foster excessive gov. entanglement w/ religion
New York Times vs. United States (1971)
the Pentagon Papers case ruled that the Nixon administration's efforts to prevent the publication- prior restraint- of what it termed 'classified information' violated the 1st Amendment
Roe vs. Wade (1973)
established national abortion guidelines by extending the inferred right of privacy from Griswold
United States vs. Nixon (1974)
the president can't claim executive privilege to withhold evidence in a criminal investigation
Buckley vs. Valeo (1976)
allowed legislatures to limit campaign contributions, but not how much a candidate can spend of thier own money
U.C. Regents vs. Bakke (1978)
eliminated strict racial quotas under affirmative action but allowed race to be one of the factors relating to admission status
INS vs. Lopez (1984)
Amendment 4 and exclusionary rule do not apply in deportation proceedings
Webster vs. Reproductive Health Services (1989)
did not overturn Roe vs. Wade, but allowed states to restrict access to abortions
Hazelwood vs. Kuhlmeier (1988)
Amendment 1 does not require schools to affirmatively promote particular types of student speech, which equated into censorship of a school paper
Shaw vs. Reno (1993)
Miller vs. Johnson (1995)
cannot segregate voters based on race via redrawing legislative district boundaries
United States vs. Lopez (1995)
finds that firearms in schools have nothing to do with interstate commerce
Adarand vs. Pena (1995)
presumption of disadvantage b/c of race alone w/ consequent allocation of favored treatment is discriminatory annd violates the 5th Amendment's Equal Protection Clause
What did Adarand vs. Pena (1995) insist about the allocation of favored treatment?
it "must serve a compelling government interest, and must be narrowly tailored to further that interest"
Clinton vs. New York (1998)
banned presidential use of line-item veto as a violation of legislative powers b/c it gave unconstitutional power to president
Bush vs. Gore (2000)
used Amendment 14's equal protection clause to stop the Florida recount; the ballots cannot be devalued by 'later arbitrary and disparate treatment'
Atkins vs. Virginia (2002)
death penalty for mentally retarded found unconstitutional since it violated 'cruel and unusual punishment' clause of the 8th Amendment
Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris (2002)
public money can be used to send disadvantaged children to private schools on voucher programs; it doesn't violate the establishment clause
Board vs. Pottawatomie (2002)
school districts can give random drug tests only to those students who are involved in extracurricular activities
Ashcroft vs. ACLU (2002)
struck down a federal ban on 'virtual' child pornography; court found it wasn't best means to protect kids b/c it covered too much protected material
What did Ashcroft vs. ACLU feel would do just as good of a job of protecting kids?
blocking software installed on home computers would protect kids just as well but w/out preventing free speech