Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
German friar who nailed his prospects against Catholic doctrines to door of Wittenberg's cathedral in 1517. Declraed that Bible alone was source of God's word. Ignited the Protestant Reformation.
Martin Luther
A somber and sever religious leader who used Luther's teachings and began Calvinism that was adopted by New England Puritans and others.
John Calvin
The basic doctrine of John Calvin written in Latin in 1536. Argued that God was all powerful, all knowing and all good, while humans were weak and wicked.
Institutes of the Christian Religion
Souls that had been destined, since the beginning of creation, for eternal bliss with God in heaven.
The Elect
The receipt of God's free gift of saving grace. Understood to be an intense religious experience in which God revealed himself to a person.
Thos that were chosen by God to be saved and had to live "sanctified" lives, demonstrating by their holy behavior that they were part of this group.
Visible Saints
King of England that was breaking ties with the Roman Catholic church in the 1530's and was making himself the head of the Church of England. All because the Catholic church would not grant him an annulment.
Henry VIII
Members of the church of England that called for reform of the church. They demanded "purification" of the Church of England.
Religion statred by John calvin that had a message of stark but reassuring order in the divine plan.
A tiny group or sect of Puritans that vowed to completely separate or break away form the Church of England.
The king of England who was a shrewd Scotsman and who was the head of both the state and the church in England from 1603 to 1625. Harassed Separatists out of England in order to maintain his political power.
King James I
This happened to the children of Separatists when they were in Holland in 1608. The term for the adaptation of Dutch ways of life and religion.
A group of Separatists from Holland that negotiated with the Virginia Company andgot the rights to settle in Virginia. They ended up in Plymouth.
The small ship that carried 102 pilgrims to New England in 1620.
The name given to the pilgrim child that was born on the Mayflower while it was at sea.
A stocky soldier nicknamed "Captain Shrimp" who later became an indispensable Indian fighter and negotiator.
Myles Standish
A document that contained a simple agreement to form a crude government and to submit to the will of the majority under the regulations agreed upon. Drawn up by the Pilgrims.
Mayflower Compact
The early mainstays of the Pilgrim society. One for the sustenance of the body and the other for the sustenance of the soul.
The Beaver and the Bible
A self taught scholar who read Hebrew, Greek, Latin, French, and dutch. Was elected the governor of the Pilgrim community 30 times in a row.
William Bradford
A succesful attorney and manor lord in England who came to the Massachusetts Bay Colony and became its governor.
John Winthrop
An Archibishop form England who snactioned ani-Puritan persecutions and called the Puritans, "swine which rooted in God's vineyard."
Archbishop William Laud
Waves of Puritans and other people who migrated from England in the 1630's. About 70,000 refugees left England.
Great Migration
The term for adult males that belonged to the Puritan Congregation.
All the adult males who were members of the Puritan church were collectively called this.
Congregational Church
It was a term attached to the MAssachusetts Bay Colony because of its extremely religioulsy regulated government and the use of the Bible as law.
Bible Commonwealth
A member of the the early clergy in Massachusetts, this man immigrated to Masschusetts to avoide persecution because of his criticism of the Church of England. In Massachusetts, he devoted his considerable elarning to defending the government's duties to enforce religious rules.
John Cotton
The Puritan life that involved serious commitment to work and to engagement in worldly pursuits.
Protestant Ethic
A clergyman whose poem "Day of Doom" (1662) sold one copy in New England for every twenty people. Had horrifying descriptions of the fate of the damned.
Michale Wigglesworth
Laws that were name dhtis because of the blue paper on which repressive laws, or sumptuary laws, were printed upon.
Blue Law
A religious grouped who were named so becuase every time the had a religoius experience they "quaked." These people were being persecuted harshly.
An intelligent and strong willed woman who challenged Puritan beliefs. Particularly the doctrine on predestination.
Anne Hutchinson
The claim that a holy life was no sure sign of salvation and the the truly saved need not bother to obey the law of either God or man.
A Salem Minister who also spoke out against Puritan ways such as the belief that government should regulate religious behavior. He was banished from MAssachusetts. he formed a settlement in Rhode Island with a chuch that was tolerant to all people.
Roger Williams
Led an energetic group of Boston Puritans into the Hartford area.
Thomas Hooker
Settlers of Connecticut (in 1639) drafted this modern constitution, which established a regime democratically controlled by the "substantial" citizens.
Fundamental Orders
A man who had disheartening and failed attempts at colonization in 1623 in the northeast of America.
Sir Fernando Gorges
The indian tribe loacted near the Plymouth that at first befriended the Pilgrims and participated in thanksgiving with them.
Wampanoag Indians
A Wampanoag Indian who knew English was the conneciton between the Indians and the English settlers.
The name given to terms of service that ranged from 4 to 7 years.
A powerful tribe along the Connecticut River valley that had confrontations with the English settlers starting in 1637.
Pequot Tribe
Chief Massasoit's son, who became chief of the Wampanoag. Was called King Philip by the English. He formed an alliance of INdian tribes and launched a series of coordinated attacks against the English in 1675.
The name given to the series of attacks from the Indian tribe alliance led by Massasoit or King Philip.
King Philip's War
An experiment in union when four colonies, in 1643, banded together to form this confederation. The puropse was defense against foes or potential foes, notably the Indians, the French, and the Dutch.
New England Confederation
A confederation imposed from London. Containsed all of New England and later included New York and New Jersey. Aimed at bolstering colonial defnese in the event of war with the Indians and at to promote the enforcement of English Navigation Laws.
Dominion of New England
The head of the new Dominion, an able English military man, conscientious but tactless. He curbed town meetings, laid heavy restrictions on the courts, the press, and the schools; and revoked all land titles.
Sir Edmund Andros
Also known as the Bloodless Revolution (1688-1689) in which the despotic Catholic King James II was dethroned and when the Dtuch born William III and his wife Mary (daughter of James II) were instituted as the the king and queen of England.
Glorious Revolution
A period of time when the much-resented English Navigaiton Laws were only weakly enforced.
Salutary Neglect
An English explorer employed by the Dutch east India company to explore America. Founded the Hudson River and made a claim for the Dutch in a beautifully wooded and rich land that would become New Netherland.
Henry Hudson
The Dutch trading empire and trade regulation company of the East Indies.
Dutch East India Company
A much less powerful Dutch trading empire in the Caribbean.
Dutch West India Company
The Dutch claim to a magnificently wooded and watered area in northeast America. Claimed by Henry Hudson. Loacted in the Hudson River area.
New Netherlands
Dutch compant town in the New Netherlands that was made for Dutch stockholders and had little care for religious toleration and democracy. A big port city that was concentrated on trading.
New Amsterdam
A colony planted by the Swedes on the Delaware River between 1638-1655.
New Sweden
The ablest of Dutch directors-general that was nicknamed "Father Wooden Leg." He easily conquered the Swedish settlement and made it part of the New Netherlands.
Peter Stuyvesant
Dutch societal and cultural contributions such as Easter Eggs, Santa Claus, waffles, sauerkraut, bowling, sleghing, skating, and Kolf (Golf). Also Dutch place names such as Haarlem (Harlem), Breckelen (brooklyn), and Hellegat (Hell Gate).
Dutch social customs and folkways
The brother of charles II who got a grant to the New Netherland area in 1664. He had taken over New Amsterdam without firing a shot and later named the city New York in honor of himself.
Duke of York
The term given to the community of Quakers.
Society of friends
A convertant to Quakerism who came form a noble family. Because of an old debt owed by the king and his immense inheritance form his father, this man founded Pennsylvania in 1981.
William Penn
A religoiusly and politically tolerant colony that was the most advertised of all the colonies and the most diverse. Had a very liberal policy and people were invited to settle there. Founded by William Penn.
Land was bought form this Indian Chief in Pennsylvania. He later became the patron saint of New York's political Tammany Hall.
Chief Tammany
The colonies in central America: New York, New JErsey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania. All had fertile soil and a broad land expanse, magnificent rivers, a surpsrising amount of industry, there was religious toleration and democratic control, they were very diverse, and were somewhat aristocratic and humble.
Middle Colonies