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48 Cards in this Set

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republicanism
a just society as one in which all citizens willingly subordinated their private, selfish interests to the common good
citizenry
its capacity for selflessness, self-sufficiency, and courage, and its appetite for civiv involvement
radical whigs
feared the threat to liberty posed by the arbitrary power of the monarch and his ministers relative to elected reps in parliment
Mercantilism
wealth was power and that a country's economic wealth could be measured by the amount of gold/silver in its treasury
Adam Smith
Scottish "Father of Modern Economics" who attacked mercantilism
Navigation Laws
all comerce flowing to and from the colonies could be transported only in British ships
enumerated products
americans had to ship certain products exclusively to Britain (ex. tobacco)
"royal veto"
crown could nullify any legislation passed by the colonial assemblies
John Hancock
his American fortune was amassed by wholesale smuggling
benefits Americans reaped from the mercantile system
London paid liberal bounties for production of ship parts, virginia tobacco growers had monopoly in Britain, protection of the strongest army and navy without having to pay
the mercantile system's liabilities
stiflied economic initiative, dependence on Britain, debasing felt used
George Grenville
Prime Minister who ordered to strictly enforce the navigation laws and sugar act
Sugar Act
1764: raising tax revenue for the crown; increased duty on foreign sugar from west indies
Quartering Act
1765: required certain colonies to provide food/housing for British troops
Stamp Act
1765: raise revenue to support military; stamps to certify payment of tax on bills of sale, legal documents
American Distinction between legislation and taxtation
right of parliment to legislate about matters that affected the entire empire, including the regulation of trade, but denied right of parliment to impose taxes on americans
John Dickinson
a lawyer and popular essayist who advocated a middle-of-the road response to the new British revenue acts
virtual representation
every member of parliment represented all british subjects, even those in america who had never voted
Stamp Act Congress
1765: brought together in NY , 27 delegates from 9 colonies and they beseeched King and parliment to repeal the repugnant legislation
non-importation agreements
against british goods; tried to make those goods in the colonies instead so they didnt have to buy them and therefore hurt britain's economy
Sons of Liberty
took law into their own hands; violence accompainied colonial protests
Daughters of Liberty
took law into their own hands; violence accompainied colonial protests
Declaratory Act
reaffirmed parliment's right "to bind" the colonies in all cases
"Champagne" Charley Townshend
a man who could deliver brillian speeches in parliment even when drunk; prime minister who passed townshend acts
Townshend Acts
light import duty on glass, white lead, paper, paint, and tea
internal and external taxes
direct taxtation vs. indirect taxtation (???)
King George III
repealed the stamp act, but passed the declatory act; bad ruler
Crispus Attucks
first to die in protest; powerfully built runaway "mulatto" and mob leader
Lord North
corpulent prime minister of king george III
Samuel Adams
master propagandist and engineer of rebellion; loved politics; cousin to John; organized in Mass the local committee of correspondence
British East India Company
facing bankruptcy; awarded complete monopoly of tea business in colonies
Thomas Hutchinson
Maa gov who agreed that the tea tax was unjust, but he believed colonists had right to flout the law: infuriated
Boston Tea Party
Dec 16, 1773 100 Bostians disguised as indians board ships and throw 342 chests of tea overboard
"Intolerable Acts"
the laws were called this in america; many of the chartered rights of colonial mass were swept away
Boston Port Act
port closed until damages were paided for
Quebec Act
1774: French guaranteed Catholic religion and retained many old customs and institutions, didnt include rep assemblies or trial by jury, and borders were extended
Continental Congress
1774: summonded to meet in Philly to consider ways of redressing colonial grievances (12 of 13 colonies there)
Declaration of Rights
drew up by first continental congress; stated rights
The Association
called for complete boycott of british goods: nonimportation, nonexportation, and nonconsumption
Lexington and Concord
Briitish sent troops to seize stores of colonial gunpowder and Sam Adams and john hancock cause "lexington massacre"
Imperial Strengths and weaknesses
Strengths: greater population, monetary wealth, naval power, army - able to get foreign soldiers; weaknesses: ireland, didn't want to kill american cousins, outspoken sympathy, British army delt with many difficulties - 3,000 miles from home, no center to capture
Hessians
germans wh were hired as british soldiers
George Washington
brilliant leader
Benjamin Franklin
master among diplomats
Marquis de LaFayette
wealthy young french nobleman, made a general at age 19, secured age from france
"not worth a continental"
continental congress forced to print money ("continentals") and it baiscally became worth nothing
Valley Forge
American soldiers went without bread for 3 days; 2800 men barefoot or nearldy naked
Baron von Steuben
didnt speak english, taught men that bayonets were not for "broiling beefsteaks over open fires" - trained soldiers