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87 Cards in this Set

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railroads coming together across the U.S.
Integrated system of railroads
In the cutthroat competition of late nineteenth-century railroading, some railroads increased the volume of freight they carried by giving shippers reduced rates for large shipments. It was a policy open to abuse.
rebates
grandson and great-grandson of presidents, full of ambition. “I fixed on the railroad system as the most developing force and the largest field of the day, and determined to attach myself to it.”
Charles Francis Adams
who had made a large fortune in the shipping business, controlled railroad lines running from Albany to New York City, merged with Central. In 1873 He integrated the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern into his empire and two years later the Michigan Central.
Cornelius Vanderbilt
The dominant system builder of the Southwest, soft spoken, unostentatious-looking man who was in fact ruthless, cynical, and aggressive. He took over the Kansas Pacific, running from Denver to Kansas City, and consolidated it with the Union Pacific and the Missouri Pacific, a line from Kansas City to St. Louis.
Jay Gould
Developer of a mass-produced photographic film roll that could be easily used in his simple but efficient Kodak camera.
George Eastman
In 1869, he invented the air brake.
George Westinghouse
Invented the Sleeping car in 1864
George Pullman
The nation's telegraph network
Western Union
steel was so expensive to manufacture that it could not be used for bulky products until the invention in the 1850s of the Bessemer process, perfected independently by Him was an Englishman.
Henry Bessemer
Helped Bessemer
William Kelly
A financial banker and masterful reorganizer of businesses, especially railroads. He also bought out Andrew Carnegie and organized the U.S. Steel Company.
J. Pierpont Morgan
became the iron and steel capital of the country; developed to exploit local iron and coal fields
Pittsburgh and Birmingham
drilled the first successful well in Pennsylvania in 1859
Edwin L. Drake
Inventor of the first practical telephone in 1876.
Alexander Graham Bell
a consolidation of over 100 local systems, dominated by business.
American Telephone and Telegraph
A prolific inventor who organized a modern research laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey. He eventually acquired over 1000 patents. Among his major inventions was the electric light bulb.
Thomas Edison
In New Jersey, Edison built the prototype of the modern research laboratory, where specific problems could be attacked on a mass scale by a team of trained specialists
Menlo Park
opened a power station in New York City and began to supply current for lighting to 85 consumers.
Edison Illuminating Co.
Organizer of a massive steel corporation that dominated the industry for years. In his later years he turned his time and great wealth to philanthropic pursuits.
Andrew Carnegie
J. P. Morgan put together this, the world's first billion-dollar corporation.
United States Steel
Company organized by John D. Rockefeller in Cleveland in 1870. Through ruthless competition and superb organization, this corporation controlled 90 percent of oil refining in the United States by 1879.
Standard Oil Company
An unusually skillful business organizer. He founded Standard Oil Company and the Standard Oil Trust, which dominated American oil refining. Like others of his ilk, he sought to stabilize his industry, reduce competition, and maximize profits.
John D. Rockefeller
Sometimes inaccurately made synonymous with a monopoly, this was a business management device designed to centralize and make more efficient the management of diverse and far-flung business operations. John D. Rockefeller organized the first of these with Standard Oil.
Trust
in 1862, built an eight story emporium in New York City that covered an entire block and employed 2000 persons
Alexander Stewart
headed urban department stores in Philadelphia
John Wannamaker
headed urban department stores in Chicago
Marshall Field
view established by Andrew Carnegie, that insisted that the concentration of wealth was necessary if humanity was to progress
"Gospel of Wealth"
a California journalist, who published Progress and Poverty, a forthright attack on the maldistribution of wealth in the United States
Henry George
Author of the utopian novel Looking Backward, 2000-1887, in 1888. The book envisioned America in the future as a completely socialized society where all were equal.
Edward Bellamy
journalist, whose Wealth Against Commonwealth, was an influential attack on the monopoly of Standard Oil Company
Henry Demarest Lloyd
leading voice of the Socialist Labor Party and editor of the party's weekly, The People, who excoriated American labor unions
Daniel De Leon
founded in 1867 by Oliver H. Kelly, created to provide social and cultural benefits for isolated rural communities
Grange
Supreme Court ruling stating that any business that served a public interest (like a railroad or grain elevator) could be regulated by state laws. The decision seemed to hold that Granger laws were constitutional.
Munn v. Illinois
(1886) Supreme Court declared unconstitutional an Illinois regulation outlawing the long-and-short-haul evil, federal action became necessary.
Wabash Case
sought to outlaw the excesses of competition of business.
Interstate Commerce Act
When the Supreme Court ruled in the Wabash case that a state's power to regulate railroads was limited, Congress created this agency to perform the task. It was America's first regulatory agency, though originally it had little real authority.
Interstate Commerce Commission
Passed in 1890, this act made any concentration (monopoly) in restraint of trade illegal. This already weak law was emasculated when the Supreme Court ruled in U.S. v. E. C. Knight (1895) that manufacturing was excluded from the antitrust law. The act was often used to break up labor unions.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
it held that the American Sugar refining Company had not violated the law by taking over a number of important competitors
U.S. v. E.C. Knight Co.
A labor union organized in 1869 and headed by Uriah Stephens and Terence Powderly. It enjoyed brief success as a national labor organization, especially in the 1880s. It combined the roles of labor union and reform society, and its basic demand was for an eight- hour day
Knights of Labor
Leader of the Knights of Labor organization, he was a reformer of wide interests rather than a man to the specific problems of industrial workers.
Uriah Stephens
Stephens's successor, would have been thoroughly at home in the labor organizations of the Jacksonian era.
Terence V. Powderly
In 1886, a meeting was called to protest the killing of a worker during a strike. The protest in Chicago was ended by a mysterious bomb blast that killed seven policemen. It resulted in public condemnation of organized labor and the demise of the Knights of Labor.
Haymarket Square Riot
took over Knights of Labor's place, a combination of national craft unions established in 1886
American Federation of Labor
Long-time president of the American Federation of Labor. He advocated the use of the strike and the vote to win concessions from employers and business.
Samuel Gompers
began in Baltimore and Ohio system in response to a wage cut and spread to other eastern lines and then throughout the west until about two-thirds were put to the torch.
Railroad Strike of 1877
A company decision to crush the workers' union provoked a strike at the Homestead steel plant in Pittsburgh in 1892. With ruthless use of force, strikebreakers, and public support behind them, company officials effectively broke the strike and destroyed the union.
Homestead Strike
The most important strike of the late nineteenth century. It was provoked by wage cuts at the Pullman Car Company. Eugene V. Debs organized the strike, but it was broken when President Cleveland sent federal troops to keep the trains running.
Pullman Strike
Some Pullman workers belonged to the American Railway Union, headed by this man.
Eugene V. Debs
invented the typewriter
Christopher Sholes
refers to the National _____ of the Patrons of Husbandry, a national organization of farm owners formed after the Civil War.
Grange
America's "new" immigrants in the late nineteenth century came predominantly from southern and eastern Europe. They came in unprecedented numbers, were usually poor peasants, and were usually non-Protestant.
"New Immigration"
Temporary immigrants to America. They were usually single young men who came to America in order to earn enough money to buy land back home. They worked hard, but they had no reason to develop an attachment to American ways.
"Birds of Passage"
Tenements are four- to six-story residential dwellings, once common in New York and certain other cities, built on a tiny lot without regard to providing ventilation or light.
Dumbbell tenements
a reporter, captured the horror of the crowded warrens in his classic study of life in the slums, How the Other Half Lives (1890)
Jacob Riis
a retired naval officer, installed the first practical electric trolley line in Richmond, Virginia, in 1887-1888.
Frank Sprague
his advances in bridge design, notably the perfection of the steel-cable suspension bridge, aided the ebb and flow of metropolitan populations.
John A. Roebling
A leading architect of skyscrapers in the late nineteenth century, stressed the need for building designs that followed function. His works combined beauty, modest cost, and efficient use of space.
Louis Sullivan
landscape architect, designer of New York's Central Park, was a leading figure in the movement.
Frederick Law Olmstead
(1870), New York remained unsurpassed as centers such as this of artistic and intellectual life arose. (museum)
Metropolitan Museum of Art
for the working man, it was a kind of club, a place to meet friends, exchange news and gossip, gamble, and eat, as well as to drink beer and whiskey.
Saloons
the former described by one straightlaced critic as a “disgraceful spectacle of padded legs juggling and tight-laced wriggling.”
Burlesque and Vaudeville
were the first professional baseball team in America. It and seven other teams formed the National League in 1876.
Cincinnati Red Stockings
in 1876 teams in eight cities formed this league in baseball
National League
followed in 1901. After a brief period of rivalry, the two leagues made peace in 1903, the year of the first World Series
American League
invented the game of basketball.
James Naismith
was the football coach at Yale University. He gave collegiate football much of its modern character and rules.
Walter Camp
A middle-class urban conservative preacher of great renown, he attributed the poverty of the cities to the improvidence of the poor--the poor were to blame for their own poverty. He denounced labor unions and saw cheap immigrant labor as a solution to labor agitation.
Henry Ward Beecher
was a lay evangelist who urged slum dwellers to cast aside their sinful ways. He preached that faith in God would enable the poor to transcend the material difficulties of life
Dwight L. Moody
preached by many urban Protestant ministers focused on improving living conditions for the city's poor rather than on saving souls. They advocated civil service reform, child labor laws, government regulation of big business, and a graduated income tax.
"Social Gospel"
the most influential preacher of the Social Gospel. In "Applied Christianity" (1886) he defended labor's right to organize and strike. Though he was not a socialist, he nevertheless called for government regulation of industry and other economic and social reforms
Washington Gladden
community centers located in poor urban districts of major cities. They were usually run by single, young, college-educated women. They tried to Americanize immigrant families and provided social services and a political voice for their neighborhoods.
Settlement houses
made the Hull House in Chicago in 1889.
Jane Addams
Jane Addams's creation in Chicago was the most famous settlement house in America. It, like other settlement houses, provided social services and practical education to those they served.
Hull House
Under the presidency of Daniel Coit Gilman, stressed meticulous research and freedom of inquiry. It specialized in graduate education and attracted scholars and faculty from throughout America and Europe.
Johns Hopkins University
an important advance in women's higher education, a college that opened its doors to 300 women students in 1865
Vassar
Professor of mathematical physics at Yale from 1871 to 1903, he created an entirely new science, physical chemistry, and made possible study of how complex substances respond to changes in temperature and pressure. His ideas lead to vital advances in metallurgy and in the manufacture of plastics, drugs, and other products.
Josiah Willard Gibbs
made the first accurate measurements of the speed of light, and became the first American scientists to win a Nobel Prize
Albert A. Michelson
The "father" of progressive education, published "The School and Society" (1899) to suggest the need for an education that was practical and useful. He insisted that education should be child centered and that schools should build character, teach good citizenship, and be instruments of social reform.
John Dewey
one of the first professional historians, proposed in his "frontier thesis" that the development of American individualism and democracy was not imported from Europe, but was born and nurtured in the nation's continuous frontier experience.
Frederick Jackson Turner
wrote several books that caught the spirit of the Gilded Age. His works combined real depth with a comic genius that exposed the pretentiousness and meanness of human beings. They were very popular and have lasting appeal.
Samuel L. Clemens (Mark Twain)
A leading late nineteenth-century literary realist and influential critic, his works described both the genteel, middle-class world he knew and the whole range of metropolitan life. "Silas Lapham," his masterpiece, dealt with the ethical conflicts inherent in a competitive society.
William Dean Howells
a preeminent literary realist who detested romantic novels. In his own works, he pursued themes of cultural conflict and the cruel impoliteness of a pretentious upper class. He skillfully brought psychological penetration to the personalities of his characters.
Henry James
a prominent realist who studied in Europe in the late 1860s and was influenced by the great realists 17th-century. He spent the remainder of his life teaching and painting.
Thomas Eakins
a portrait of his mother is probably the most famous painting by an American. He was an eccentric, but he was also talented and versatile, proficient in both realistic and romantic art.
James McNeill Whistler
an important expatriate artist in the Impressionist movement, who work went mainly ignored during her lifetime.
Mary Cassatt
the founder of the discipline of psychology. He was the most influential philosopher of his time. Contrary to the prevailing environmentalism, he held an axiomatic belief in free will. He was America's leading proponent of pragmatism.
William James