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112 Cards in this Set

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What compounds do cells use as fuel for resynthesizing ATP?
breaking of covalent bonds in
-monosaccharides
-fatty acids
-amino acids
ATP Hydrolysis
breaking of ATP to yield a molecule of ADP and a Phosphate
--> releases energy
What are the begining and ending products of cellular respiration?
Glucose + 6 O2 --> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy
What are the 3 phases of Cellular Respiration?
-Glycolysis
-Krebs (Citric Acid) Cycle
-Electron Transport Chain
Where does Glycolysis occur, under what conditions and what are the products?
-occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell
-does not require oxygen (therefore does not require mitochondria)
-2 net ATP, 2 Pyruvic Acid (Pyruvate), 2 NADH
What is lactic acid?
-product of Anaeorobic respiration (Fermentation)
-what accumulates in the skeletal muscles causing muscle fatigue, soreness, partial denaturing of proteins in muscles
What is the Intermediate Step?
In cellular respiration, between glycolysis and Kreb's Cycle
-pyruvic acid become acetic acid, which is oxidized to make Acetyl CoA

products: 2 CO2, 2 NADH, 2 Acetyl CoA
What is the Kreb's Cycle
part of cellular respiration, occurs after the intermediate step
-takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria
-products: CO2, 2 net ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH
What is the Electron Transport Chain?
part of cellular respiration
-occurs across the inner mitochondrial membrane
products: 28-30 ATP
What is ATP Synthase?
an integral membrane protein in the inner mitochondrial membrane
-acts as a H+ channel
-acts as an enzyme using energy released from flow of H+ to synthesize ATP from ADP & P
What are the Four primary tissue classes?
-Epithelial tissue
-Connective tissue
-Muscular tissue
-Nervous tissue
Interstitial fluid
the extracellular fluid surrounding the cells within the tissue
Histology
the study of tissues and how they form organs
Where is Epithelial Tissue found and what are its functions?
covers entire surface of the body (skin, lining of lungs, digestive, urinary & reproductive tracts, etc)
-controls enrty & exit of substances
-primary tissue type found in glands (ie: exocrine and endocrine glands)
What is the structure of Epithelial tissue?
-epithelial cells connected to adjacent cells by proteins called tight junctions

-Made up of 3 layers:
-Apical surfaces
-Basal surfaces
-Basement membrane
What are tight junctions?
protein found in epithelial tissue that connect the epithelial cells to make tissue leak-proof
Apical Surfaces
-found in epithelial tissue
-surface that faces the outside of the body
Basal surfaces
-found in epithelial tissue
-surface that faces the inside of the body
Basement membrane
-found in epithelial tissue
-membrane that anchors the cells to the body
How is Epithelial tissue classified?
-based on the shape of the cell (squamous, cuboidal, columnar)
-based on the number of layers of cells (simple, stratified, pseudostratified)
Pseudostratified
-refers to one layer of epithelial tissue that is made of different cell types (ie: squamous, cuboidal, columnar)
What is Connective tissue?
-most abundant and variable tissue type
-composed of widely spaced cells separated by fibers and ground substance
-four primary types (Connective tissue proper, Cartilage, Bone & Blood)
What are the 3 types of cartilage?
Hyaline (nose)
Fibrocartilage (intervertebral discs)
Elastic (ear, tubes such as larynx etc)
What are the functions of Connective tissue?
-connects organs together
-support and protection
-storage of energy
-heat production
-transport of materials
What are the 3 structural elements of Connective tissue?
-Ground substance
-Fibers
-Cells
What is ground substance?
unstructured, gel-like material, fills space between cells of connective tissue
What are fibers?
very large proteins outside of the cells of connective tissue that form a web-like structure, hold tissue together
What are the 3 types of fibers?
-Collagen
-Elastic
-Reticular
What is Collagen?
-a fiber found in connective tissue
-very thick and strong
-does not stretch
-provides tough structure to tissue
What is Elastic fiber?
-a fiber found in connective tissue
-thin and strong
-stretches and recoils
-made from the protein Elastin
What is Reticular fiber?
- a fiber found in connective tissue
-thin collagen fibers
-provide delicate structure to tissue
What is the extracellular matrix of connective tissue composed of?
Ground substance & fibers
What are the 4 cell types responsible for making the 4 different types of connective tissue?
-Fibroblasts- connective tissue proper
-Chondroblasts- cartilage
-Osteoblasts- bone
-Hemocytoblasts- blood
What are the 2 types of connective tissue proper?
Loose and Dense connective tissue proper
What is the Integrumentary System and what are its functions?
-the skin
-largest organ of the body, makes up 15% of body weight
-protects the body
-regulates body temp
-sensation
-consists of 3 regions Epidermis, Demis, Hypodermis
What are the layers of the Epidermis?
5 strata:
-Stratum basale
-Stratum spinosum
-Stratus granulosum
-Stratum lucidum
-Stratum conreum
What kind of cells make up the epidermis?
-composed of stratified squamous epithelium
What is Stratum Basale?
-deepest of the strata
-has 3 types of cells: melanocytes, merkel cells, keratinocytes
-divide rapidly to replace cells lost by exfoliation
What is the Stratum Spinosum?
-several layers thick
-has 2 cell types: keratinocytes and langerhans
What is Stratum Granulosum?
-3-5 cell layers thick
-made of keratinocytes
What is Stratum Lucidum?
-thin, transluscent zone
-consists of dead cells, no nucleus or organelles (doesn't stain well)
What is the Stratum Conreum?
-outermost strata
-made of keratinsized cells
-30 layers of dead keratinocytes
What is the Dermis?
The middle region of the skin
-contains strong, flexible connective tissue, sensory cells, hair, blood vessels and glands
What are the 3 types of glands?
-sweat glands
-sebaceous glands
-ceruninous glands
What are sweat glands?
-glands that secrete water to cool the body found in the Dermal layer of the skin
What are sebaceous glands?
-glands that secrete oil to soften the skin, found int he dermal layer
What are ceruninous glands?
-glands that secrete wax, maintain eardrum, found in the dermal layer of the ear
What are the 2 layers of the Dermis?
Papillary layer- superficial
Reticular layer- deep (responsible for most of the skin's thickness)
What is the Hypodermis and what are the functions?
-deepest region of the skin
-made up of adipose and areolar connective tissues
-functions to cushion and insulate the body
General bone info
-can be referred to as a tissue or organ
-bones referred to as connective tissue are capable of growth and repair (consist of cells & extracellular matrix

-bones referred to as organ consist of:
-osseous tissue and nervous tissue
-epitheliald and muscle tissue (contain blood vessels)
What are the functions of bone?
-support
-protection
-movement
-mineral storage
-blood cell formation
What is the gross anatomy of bones?
-compact bone- dense
-spongy bone- porous, spaces filled with red bone marrrow
What is the Diaphysis?
-one of the structures of long bones
-the shaft
-compact bone
What is the Epiphyses?
-one of the structures of the long bones
-expanded ends of bones
-exterior is compact
-interior is spongy
-surface is covered by articular cartilage
What is the Epiphyseal Line?
-the location of bone lengthening on the Epiphyses
What are the 2 surfaces of bone covered with a thin layer of connective tissue?
-Periosteum-covers the most superficial surface
-Endosteum- covers the surface of the medullary cavity of long bones
What is bone remodeling?
-the process of increasing and decreasing amount of bone tissue by the endosteum and periostem
What is the composition of bone?
-hydroxyapatites -Calcium and phosphorus mineral deposits (responsible for bone hardness)
-fibers- collagen (provides ability for slight flexing without breaking)
What are the 3 cell types of osseous tissue cells?
-osteoblasts
-osteoclasts
-osteocytes
What are osteoblasts?
one of the cells of osseous tissue
- cells that increase bone density
What are osteoclasts?
one of the cells of osseous tissue
-cells that decrease bone density
What are osteocytes?
one of the cells of osseous tissue
-cells surrounded by matrix, do not make or break down matrix
What is the basic structural unit of bone?
osteon, many osteon make up a bone
What are Lamellae?
plates of bone arranged about the central canal, hold blood vessels and nerves paralell to the longest dimension of the bone
What are Canaluculi?
tiny cracks in the lamellae that connect the osteocytes and blood supply to the bone
Volkmann Canals
run perpendicular to the central canals joining them to blood and nerve supply at the superficial surface of the bone
How do you define a joint or articulation?
site where two or more bones meet

-structurally the weakest part of the skeleton
What are the functions of articulations?
-provide mobility to skeleton
-hold skeleton together
fulcrum
refers to the joint, pivot point
levers
refer to the associated bones of the joint
What is the resistance arm?
the distance between the load and the fulcrum
What is the effort arm?
the distance between the muscle attachment point and the fulcrum
Functional Classification of Joints:
Synthroses - immovable
Amphiarthroses- slightly movable
Disathroses- freely movable
Structural Classification of Joints:
-Synovial
-Fibrous
-Cartilaginous
What is a Synovial Joint?
a joint where the articulating bones are seperated by a joint capsule filled with synovial fluid- freely moveable, include limb joints
What is a Fibrous Joint?
bones joined by dense connective tissue containing high amounts of collagen, no joint capsule, most are immovable, include joints of the skull
What is a Cartilaginous Joint?
bones joined by cartiage, no joint cavity, most are slightly moveable, include intervertebral discs
At Resting Membrane Potential is the state of the ICF?
-70mV (unstimulated cell)
-ICF is negatively charged
-low Na+ conc.
-HIGH K+ conc.
-steady state condition
What creates an electrical potential between ICF and ECF?
an uneven distribution of charged substances
What are the charged substances of the cell?
Impermeable: large neg. charged proteins & nucleic acids in ICF

Permeable: Na+ & K+ ions (constantly being pumped across)
What are Gated Ion Channels?
imbedded in cell membrane
-allow 1 or 2 substances across at a time
-open when stimuli are applied to cell
-allow ions to diffuse rapidly across membrane (faster than ion pumps) causing cell membrane potential to deviate from resting value
Hyperpolarization
when the ICF becomes more negative with the flow of ions
-
Depolarization
when the ICF become less negative with the flow of ions
Types of Gated Ion Channels
-Ligand-gated channels
-Stretch-gated channels
-Voltage-gated channels
What are Ligand-gated channels?
open when a specific chem. bind to extracellular portion of channle
What are Stretch-gated channels?
open when plasma membrane is stretched
What are Voltage-gated channels?
open when membrane potential deviates from resting and reaches a specific voltage
What are Effectors?
respond to stimulus- consist of muscles and glands at a location other than the site of the stimulus
What make the transfer of electrical impulses possible over long distances?
neurons
What are neurons capable of?
-initiating electrical impulses
-changing resting membrane potential of other cells including: other neurons, muscles and glands
Neuron Anatomy
Dendrites
Body
Axon
What are dendrites
branched appendages of a neuron, recieve stimuli, respond by opening gated channels
What is the Body of the neuron, and what's another name for it?
-also called the "soma"
-location of organelles
-location of stretch & ligand-gated channels
-can also recieve stimuli
-opens gated channels
What is the axon?
long extension of the neuron cell body, can branch many times
-sends electrical impulses to other cells in the body
-location of voltage-gated channels
What is a Graded (Local) Potential?
a change in membrane potential caused by the opening of stretch or ligand-gated channels (causes either depolarization or hyperpolarization)
-a brief or localized change caused by a small stimuli
What is the function of graded potentials?
to cause or prevent the opening of voltage-gated ion channels in the axon which causes an action potential
What is absolute refractionary period?
the time during an action potential when another action potential CANNOT be initiated no matter what the stimulus
What is the relative refractionary period?
the time after the absolute refractionary period until membrane potential returns to resting (during which another action potential CAN be initiated)
What affects the velocity of an action potential?
-axon diameter (larger the diameter, greater the velocity)

-the presence of a myelin sheath
What is a myelin sheath?
white fatty covering formed by Schwann cells surrounding the axon
-provides insulation
-greatly speeds up velocity of action potential
What are the nodes of Ranvier?
-gaps between Schwann cells on the axon (naked axon segments)
-ONLY location of voltage-gated Na+ & K+ channels
-ONLY location where action potential can be generated along the length of the axon
-results in much faster conduction rate due to jumping of impulse to nodes
What is the synapse?
spaces between 2 cells where impulse is transmitted
What is a chemical synapse?
space between the axon terminal and the RECEPTOR region
What is Saltatory Conduction?
jumping of action potentials from node to node along the axon
-results in a much faster conduction rate compared to unmyelinated axons
What is threshold?
the minimun amount of depolarization required to initiate an action potential
-typically -55mV
What are the parts of a chemical synapse?
axonal terminal of presynaptic neuron
-contains synaptic vesicles filled with a neurotransmitter (chemical)
-receptor region on postsynaptic cell which contains ligand-gated channels
-synaptic cleft- fluid filled space between cells
What is a postsynaptic potential?
the opening of ligand-gated channels on the postsynaptic cell by the diffusion of neurotransmitters from the presynaptic cell
-a graded potential occurs causing depolarization or hyperpolarization
Name the 2 types of postsynaptic potentials:
-EPSP- excitatory postsynaptic potentials
-IPSP- inhibitory postsynaptic potentials
What is EPSP?
excitatory postsynaptic potential
-a depolarizing graded potential (becomes less neg)
-membrane potential moves toward
threshold
-increases chances of ap
-a single EPSP CANNOT cause an AP
-must summate to reach threshold
What is IPSP?
inhibitory postsynaptic potential
-a hyperpolarizing graded potential (becomes more neg)
-membrane potential moves away from threshold
-reduces chances of action potential
-can summate with EPSPs to cancel them out
What is Temporal Summation?
when postsynaptic potentials are generated at a single location at a high frequency
What is Spatial Summation?
when postsynaptic potentials are generated at different locations at the same time