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102 Cards in this Set

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2 kidneys, 2 ureters, 1 urinary bladder and 1 urethra
parts of urinary system
red/brown, lima bean shape, high on ether side of abdominal cavity, right is 1.5cm lower than left b/c of liver
kidneys
behind peritoneal cavity, 4in long, 2in wide,1in thick, flattened antero-posteriorly
retroperitoneal
kidneys are embedded in a 3-layer fatty, fibrous patch
1.inner-renal capsule
2.middle-adipose capsule
3.outer- renal fascia
inner layer of kidney, attachment and protects from trauma and infection
renal capsule
middle layer of kidney,protection
adipose capsule
outer layer, anchors kidneys to peritoneum and abdominal wall
renal fascia
support gives way and kidneys drop,occurs in thin people,cause ureter to kink and block urine flow
renal ptosis
backup of urine from ureteral obstruction
hydronephrosis
filter a/b 200L of fluid in bloodstream/day, toxins, metabolic wastes and excess ions leave body in urine,regulates water,salts and pH of blood, metabolize vitD into its active form
kidney function
during prolonged fasting, kidneys suppl glucose 20% as much as liver
gluconeogenesis
enzyme to help regulate blood pressure and fxn of kidneys
renin
hormone that stimulates production of RBCs in bone marrow,produced in kidneys
erythropoietin
deep depression on concave side of the kidney
renal sinus
entranceto the renal sinus, renal artery,vein and ureter enter or exit here
hilus
2 kidneys, 2 ureters, 1 urinary bladder and 1 urethra
parts of urinary system
red/brown, lima bean shape, high on ether side of abdominal cavity, right is 1.5cm lower than left b/c of liver
kidneys
behind peritoneal cavity, 4in long, 2in wide,1in thick, flattened antero-posteriorly
retroperitoneal
kidneys are embedded in a 3-layer fatty, fibrous patch
1.inner-renal capsule
2.middle-adipose capsule
3.outer- renal fascia
inner layer of kidney, attachment and protects from trauma and infection
renal capsule
middle layer of kidney,protection
adipose capsule
outer layer, anchors kidneys to peritoneum and abdominal wall
renal fascia
support gives way and kidneys drop,occurs in thin people,cause ureter to kink and block urine flow
renal ptosis
backup of urine from ureteral obstruction
hydronephrosis
filter a/b 200L of fluid in bloodstream/day, toxins, metabolic wastes and excess ions leave body in urine,regulates water,salts and pH of blood, metabolize vitD into its active form
kidney function
during prolonged fasting, kidneys suppl glucose 20% as much as liver
gluconeogenesis
enzyme to help regulate blood pressure and fxn of kidneys
renin
hormone that stimulates production of RBCs in bone marrow,produced in kidneys
erythropoietin
deep depression on concave side of the kidney
renal sinus
entranceto the renal sinus, renal artery,vein and ureter enter or exit here
hilus
reddish brown and granular, outer layer
cortex
darker colored and striped, inner layer, 8-15 renal pyramids separated by renal columns, apexes are pointed toward renal sinus
medulla
fxnl unit of kidney, >1000000/kidney, filter blood,(return/remove), formation of urine
nephron
passive, nonselective process in which hydrostatic pressure fores fluids and solutes through a membrane
glomerular filtration
tuft of capillaries, capillaries in these are 100-400x as porous as those in skeletal muscle, allow passage of much water and dissolved solutes,few proteins pass b/c of finger like pedicels
glomerulus
passive nonselective process in which hydrostatic pressure forces fluids and solutes through a membrane
glomerular filtration
transepithelial process that begins as soon as the filtrate enters the proximal tubules
tubular reabsorption
reapsorption in reverse
tubular secretion
completely surrounds the glomerulus
glomerular (bowman's)capsule
many microvilli in these tubules
proximal convoluted tubule
impermeable to solutes, permeable to H2O
descending limb of loop of henle
permeable to solutes, not H2O
ascending limb of loop of henle
few microvilli in these tubules
distal convoluted tubule
glomerular capsule and enclosed glomerulus
renal corpuscle
receives urinefrom nephrons, coninuous w/ the ureter leaving the hilus, permeable to urea
collecting duct
small collecting depressions, branching extensions of the pelvis
minor calyx
larger collecting depressions, cup shaped areas that enclose papillae
major calyx
largest collecting depression, continuous w/ ureter leaving the hilus
renal pelvis
infection of renal pelis and calyces
pyelitis
inflammations that affect the entire kidney
pyelonephritis
transport urine from kidneys, 2 of them, retroperitoneal in location, 10in long, thickest where it enters bladder, .5in in diameter
ureters
important role in forming concentrated urine
vasa recta
continuous with lining of renal tubules and urinary bladder, secretes mucus to lubricate and protect ureter
mucosa
inner longitudinal and outer circular layer of smooth muscle, lower 1/3 has 3rd longitudinal layer, muscular peristaltic waves ove urine,causes urine to spurt into bladder
muscularis
covering ureters external surface is typical fibrous connective tissue
adventitia
storage sac for urine, in females in contace with ureters and vagina, in males prostate gland is belw bladder
urinary bladder
apex is secured by this, it was once functional as a urethra
urachus
triangle region f ladder, many infections
trigone
3 layers of urinary bladder
1.mucosa
2. detrusor muscle
3. serosa
innermost layer of urinary bladder, stretches(transitional epithelium) have flaps over ureters to prevent backflow
mucosa
middle layer of urinary bladder, modified to form a sphicter at urethra
detrusor muscle
outermost layer of urinary bladder, only on superior surface, actually a continuation of peritoneum
serosa
conveys urine from urinary bladder to outside of body
urethra
muscularis sphincter of urethra, formed by detrusor muscle of urinary bladder, involuntary smooth muscle
internal uretral sphincter
muscularis sphincter of urethra, voluntary striated muscle
external urethral sphincter
females empty urine through this 1.5 in tube
urethral orifice and then into vestibule between labia minor
anterior to vagina an 2.5cm posterior of clitoris
urethral orifice
2.5 cm long, receives drainage from prostate gland and 2 ejaculatory ducts
prostatic urethra
0.5 cm in males, external urethral muscle is here
membranous uethra
15cm long, surrounded by erectile tissue
penile urethra
urination, act of emptying bladder 1200mL a day or 600-2500
capacity=700-800
micuturition reflex triggered=200-300, 10mL remain after emptying
micturition
urinary and reproductive systems both originate from this
urogenital ridge
2 systems share common structures in dev. and at birth they are separate, except in males urethra used for urine and semen
urogenital ridge
3 types of kidnes in human embryo
1.pronephros
2.mesonephros
3.metanephros
urinary system starts and finishes sooner than what system
reproductive
type of kidney in embryo..develops during 4th week of development, persists through 6th week, most superior, connected to cloaca(opening to outside of embryo) by pronephric duct, non-fxnl and degenerates, used by mesonephric kidney
pronephros
type of kidney in embryo.. develops at end of 4th week of development, functions throughout embryonic development
mesonephro
type of kidney in embryo, begins development durin 5th week of development, becomes fxnl at end of 8th week, urine is expelled into amnionic fluid
metanephros
initially drains urine, later reduced to a support for urinary bladder, may continue to pass urine out of umbilicus in newborn or old aged
urachus
medical specialty in urinary system
urology
analysis of urine for diagnosing health (pee in a cup)
urinalysis
common malformation of kidneys, 1/600 births
horseshoe kidneys
common malformation of kidneys, 1/200 births, both kidneys on 1 side
unilateral
in males only, urethra is open on underside of penis
hypospadius
in males only, urethra is open on upperside of penis
hyperspadius/epispadius
urinary bladder infection easily, especially in females because of short urethra (don't wipe back to front)
cystitis
renal pelvis infection
pyelitis
nephron infection
nephritis
inflammation of entire kidneys, may be successfully treated w/ antibiotic therapy
pyelonephritis
substance that is toxic to kidney, heavy metal, organic solvent, bacterial toxin
nephrotoxin
low urinary output <50mL/day, nephrons may cease to fxn, blood pressure in glomerulus may be too low
anuria
need to get up during night to urinate, very common in older people
nocturia
inability to control micturition voluntarily, normal in infants
incontinence
bed wetting, most common in young and old persons
nocturnal enuresis
bladder unable to expel its urine, treatment may require insertion of a catheter (rubber drainage tube)
urinary retention
kidney stones, crystalized calcium, magnesium or uric adic, caused by frequent bacterial infections, urinary retention, high concentrations of calcium in blood, alkaline urine, cranberry juice and large amts of water may reduce incidence
renal caliculi
viewing tube inserted into bladder, examines mucosal surface of bladder
cystoscopy
appetite for abnormal substances, indicates electrolyte deficiencies, chalk, clay,starch,burnt matches
pica
counteracts acidity, sodium bicaronate, used to manage heartburn
antacid
procedure to shatter caliculi
shock wave lithotripsy
hypersecretion of aldosterone by adrenal cortical cells accompanied by excessive loss of potassium and generalized muscular weakness
conn's disease
metabolic acidosis resulting from impaired renal reabsorption of bicarbonate, the urine is alkaline
renal tubular acidosis