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80 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Name the –cephalon portions of the forebrain
Telencephalon, Diencephalon
Name the –cephalon portion of the midbrain
Mecencephalon
Name the –cephalon portions of the hindbrain
Metencephalon, Myelencephalon
What are the 2 parts of the autonomic system?
Sympathetic (adrenergic), parasympathetic (cholinergic)
What portion of the nervous system is responsible for conscious movement?
Somatic NS
How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?
31
What 2 types of neurons comprise the PNS?
Sensory, motor
What are the collections of neurons called in the CNS?
Nuclei
What are the collections of neurons called in the PNS?
Ganglia
In the CNS, collections of axons are called ____________?
Tracts
In the PNS, collections of axons are called ____________?
Nerves
What are the 3 major levels of the CNS?
Spinal cord, subcortical (lower) brain, cortical (higher) brain
How many glia cells are in the CNS?
Billions
What types of circuits/reflexes are found in the spinal cord?
Circuits: walking, withdrawal, support against gravity, organ function control
What is the lower brain responsible for?
Subconscious body activities
True or false: The cortical level of the brain functions independent of the subcortical level
False, the subcortical level is responsible for wakefulness
Without the cortical level, the subcortical level would be ____________
Imprecise
Are CNS neurons capable of regeneration?
No
What are the 2 ways CNS neurons communicate
Physical (electrical & gap junctions) & chemical (neurotransmitters) stimuli
True or false: CNS neurons only have a 5 min reserve for energy
False; CNS neurons have NO energy storage/reserve and require constant blood flow to survive
Where are gap junctions primarily located?
Smooth & cardiac muscle
Chemical synapses allow _____________ transmission of signals
One-way
What 2 types of post-synaptic receptors in the CNS?
Nicotinic & muscarinic
What similarities do neurons share with other cells?
Have a cell membrane, cytoplasm & mitochondria; contains genes; makes protein & energy
True or false: Axons receive signals and dendrites deliver information
False; Axons deliver, dendrites receive
What is the soma?
The main body of the neuron
What part of the neuron is considered the sensory portion?
The dendrites
How many axons do neurons typically have?
One
Do dendrites conduct an action potential?
No, they conduct electrical signals but not sufficient to elicit an action potential alone
Will the neuron survive if the soma dies?
No
Where are the soma bodies found in the CNS?
Gray matter
Where are the soma bodies found in the PNS?
In clusters called ganglia
Which axon will conduct faster: a diameter of 0.2 nanometers or 20 nanometers?
The larger one (20 nanometers)
What are some termination points for axons?
Dendrites/somas, muscles, or glands
Where do electrical signals summate to produce an action potential in a neuron?
Axon Hillock
Why is the Axon Hillock the only place a neuron can produce an action potential?
The bulk of Na-channels are located here (only place to produce adequate depolarization)
What are the ends of the axon called where synapses occur?
Boutons, buttons, small knobs, terminal buttons, end bulb, etc.
What organelle is found in abundance at the end of the axon where synapses occur?
Mitochondria
What ion controls neurotransmitter release in the pre-synaptic membrane?
Calcium
What 2 two-receptor proteins are found in the post-synaptic?
Ionophore (opens ion channel or activates 2nd messenger), binding component (attaches to transmitter)
What kind of post-synaptic neuron are Na-channels?
Excitatory
What kind of post-synaptic neuron are Cl-channels?
Inhibitory
What is responsible for “memory” actions within a cell and allows long-term changes in neuronal activity?
Second messengers
What type of second messenger is used for 75% of transduced reactions within a cell?
G-protein
Which part of the G-protein is the activator portion, alpha, beta, or gamma?
Alpha
What 4 things do G-proteins perform in a cell?
Open an ion channel, activate cAMP/cGMP, gene transcription, and activate intracellular enzymes
Give some examples of small molecule neurotransmitters
ACh, NE, Dopamine, serotonin, GABA, Glycine, Glutamate, NO
Give some examples of Neuropeptides
Endorphins, enkephalins, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), leutinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), vasopressin, prolactin
What type of chemical neurotransmitter is rapidly acting, short in duration, with portions recycled for future use?
Small molecules
What type of chemical neurotransmitter is slow acting, more potent in effect but not recycled for future use?
Neuropeptides
How much a positive change in mV must occur within a neuron to elicit an action potential at the Axon Hillock?
+20 mV change
What 2 different types of summation are used for action potential initiation?
Spatial (multiple dendrites converge to one signal) and temporal (successive excitation results in a stronger and stronger signal)
What type of summation is post-tetantic/double burst stimulation?
Temporal
Why are dendrites unable to elicit action potentials when stimulated by a pre-synaptic neuron?
1) Not enough Na-channels on dendrites & 2) “leaky membrane” causes exchanges of Cl (inhibitory) and K (excitatory) which reduces signal before arriving at the soma
What is fatigue in a neuron?
Exhaustion of stored neurotransmitter so that a reduction in excitability is noted (a precursor to the concept of down regulation)
What technique do we use in anesthesia that allows us to examine the NMJ when fatigue hinders assessment?
Post-tetanic TOF
What is the minimum synaptic delay?
0.5 ms
What causes synaptic delay?
The time from neurotransmitter release to the activation in the post-synaptic membrane
What does acidosis do to neuronal activity?
Depresses it (coma) – think pH down, decreased activity
What does alkalosis do to neuronal activity?
Excites it (seizures) – think pH up, increased activity
What will result if hypoxic insult occurs to the brain for 3-7 seconds?
Unconsciousness
Why type of axon has faster conduction, myelinated or unmyelinated?
Myelinated
What types of cells form the myelination in the PNS?
Schwann cells
What type of cells form the myelination in the CNS
Oligodendrocytes
Which cell myelinates more than one axon?
Oligodendrocytes
Which type of cell myelinates only one axon?
Schwann cells
The axons in the CNS make up ___________ matter
White
The somas in the CNS make up ___________ matter
Grey
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a destruction of what?
The myelin sheath surrounding the neuron
What are gaps in the myelin sheath called?
Nodes of Ranvier
Where are nerve impulses conducted, IN or AROUND, the nodes of Ranvier?
In the gaps (nodes)
What type of conduction does myelinated axons use?
Salutatory conduction
What is the most common classification of cell?
Multipolar
What type of neuron has several dendrites and only one axon (usually a motor neuron)?
Multipolar
What type of neuron has the soma in the middle, one process extending to be dendrites and one process extending to become and axon (usually a sensory neuron)?
Bipolar
What type of neuron has the soma body forming a “T” shape, has 2 axons on one end, and dendrites on the other?
Unipolar (pseudounipolar)
Where are unipolar neurons typically found?
Outside the CNS in the posterior root ganglia of spinal/cranial nerves
What functional classification are afferent neurons?
Sensory
What functional classification are efferent neurons?
Motor
What types of neurons are multipolar and are found entirely in the CNS?
Interneurons or Association Neurons