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53 Cards in this Set

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Second Great Awakening
Liberal religious revivals in U.S. during early 19th century a reaction against rationalism (belief in human reason) and Calvinist teachings of predestination
Timothy Dwight
President of Yale College in CT whose campus revivals motivated a generation of young men to become evangelical preachers
revivalism; revival (camp) meetings
preached all were free to be saved through faith/hard work appealing to middle class;
Baptist and Methodist preachers would travel from one location to another and attract thousands to hear dramatic outdoor preaching or camp meetings
the widespread belief that world about ot end with 2nd coming of Christ
Church of Latter-Day Saints;
Religious group founded by based on the Book of Mormon tracing conncection between Indeians and Israel, following moved from NY to OH, MI, finally IL
Joseph Smith; Brigham Young
Founder of Mormons gathered a following murdered by mob; lead Mormons to Great Salt Lake in Utah to escape persecution
New Zion
What the Mormons called their religious community established on bands of Great Salt Lake in Utah
romantic movement
movement in early 19th century in art/lit stress intuition, feelings, acts of heroism, study of nature
1820-1860 small group of New England writers/reformers express romantic/idealistic themes;
look for god in nature, view organized institutions not important, supported antislavery mvmnt
Ralph Waldo Emerson, "The American Scholar"
1803-1882 best-known transcendentalist argues for self-reliance, independent thinking, support anti-slavery/Union of civil war; address to Harvard urging Americans to create unique culture
Henry David Thoreau, Walden, "On Civil Disobedience"
transcendentalist, Walden about living by himself in woods to discover essential truths about life/universe from nature, advocate of nonviolent proptest
Brook Farm;George Ripley
transcendentalist community in MA lived Emerson, Margaret Fuller, Theodore Parker, Hawthorne, atmosphere of artistic creativity; Protestant Minister launched communal experiment at Brook Farm
Margaret Fuller
Theodore Parker
theologian and radical reformer
communal movement with 6000 members in 1840s that died out-held property in common, kept men/woman separate,
Robert Owen; New Harmony
Welsh industrialist and reformer created New Harmony; Indiana secular (nonreligious) utopian socialist trying to provide answer to problems of alienation caused by Industrial Rev., experiment failed
Joseph Henry Noyes; Oneida community
started a cooperative community in Oneida, NY; dedicated to ideal of perfect social/economic equality, members share property/partners "free love", prospered by selling crafted silverware
Charles Fourier; phalanxes
French socialist; shared work/living arrangements
Horace Greely
newspaper editor interested in Fourier theories
George Caleb Bingham
painter portrayed everyday life of ordinary ppl in 1830s
William S. Mount
painter of lively rural compositions
Thomas Cole and Frederick Church
painters emphasize heroic beauty of American landscapes in dramatic scenes along Hudson Rv, NY
begun in 1840 by recovering alcoholics argued alcoholism disease that needs treatment
Hudson River School
painters of Hudson Rv expressed the romantic age's faschination w/ natural world
Washington Irving
wrote fiction using American settings
James Fenimore Cooper
wrote fiction using American settings such as the Leatherstocking Tales
alcohol targeted as cause of social ills, most popular reform movements
American Temperance Society
1826 founded by Protestant ministers tried to persuades Americans to take vow of alcohol abstinence
Women's Christian Temperance Union
help gain strength for temperance in 1870s
asylum movement
proposed setting up new public institutions to cure inmates of antisocial behavior treated to disciplined pattern of life in rural setting
Dorthea Dix
dedicated life to improving conditions of mental hospitals
Thomas Gallaudet
founded a school for the deaf
Dr. Samuel Gridly Howe
founded a school for the blind
experiment of new prisons erected in PA place prisoners in solitary confinement dropped b/c high suicide rate
Auburn system
NY experiment enforced rigud discipline/moral instruction/work programs for prisoners
Horace Mann
leading advocate of public school movement, secretrary on newly founded MA Board of Education
McGuffey readers
used in schools to instill virtues of hard work, punctuality, sobriety-behavior needed in emerging Industrial society
Mt. Holyoke College; Mary Lyon; Oberlin College
Mary Lyon founded Mt. Hollyoke College in MA in 1837 which admitted women along with Oberlin College in OH
Sarah Grimke; Angelina Grimke' Letter on the Condition of Women and the Equality of the Sexes
Sisters objected to male opposition to their antislavery activities; Sarah writes Letteron the Condition of Women and the Equality of the Sexes
Lucretia Mott; Elizabeth Cady Stanton
began campaigning for women's right after barred from speaking at antislavery convention
Seneca Falls Convention
1848 leading feminists meet at Seneca Falls, NY being 1st womens right convention in US History
Susan B. Anthony
leads campaign for equal voting, legal, and property rights for women
American Colonization Society
founded 1817 established with idea of transporting freed slaves to colony- African American society in Monrovia, Liberia in 1822
American Antislavery Society
founded in 1833 by William Llyod Garrison and other abolitionists
William Llyod Garrison; The Liberator
began publication of abolitionist newspaper, founded American Antislavery Society; abolitionist newspaper
Libery party
pledge to end slavery by political and legal means
Frederick Douglass; The North Star
former slave advocated political/direct action to end slavery and racial prejudice; 1847 antislavery journal published by Douglass
Harriet Tubman, David Ruggles, Sojourner Truth, William Still
helped organize effor to assist fugitive slaves escape to free territory in North/Canada where slavery prohibited
David Walker, Henry Highland Garnet
northern blacks who advocated slaves should take action by rising up in revolt against their "masters"
Nat Turner
Virginia slave led revolt killing 55 whites, blacks killed in retaliation
American Peace Society
founded with objective of abolishing war
Sylvester Graham
crackers promote good digestion
Amelia Bloomer
reform to wear Amelia Bloomer's pantalettes instead of long skirts