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128 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
5 Functions of Saliva?
Moistens mouth, digest a little starch, and fat, cleanses teeth, inhibits bacterial growth.
More functions of saliva?
dissolves molecules, moistens food, and binds particles together to aid in swalling.
What enzyme begins starch digestion in the mouth?
Salivary amylase.
What enzyme is activated by the stomach acid and digests fat after food is swallowed?
lingual lipase.
What binds and lubricates food mass and aids in swallowing?
What enzyme kills bacteria?
Which antibody inhibits bacterial growth?
Immunoglobulin A
Electrolytes include?
sodium, potassium, chloride, phosphate, and bicarbonate ions.
pH of Saliva?
6.8 to 7.0
What are the two kinds of salivary glands?
Intrinsic and extrinsic.
These glands secrete relatively small amounts of saliva at a fairly constant rate whether we are eating or not?
When food is not being swallowed which constrictor remains contracted to exclude air from the esophagus?
The esophagus meets the stomach at an opening called the ?
Cardiac orifice.
Definition of Lower esophageal sphicter?
The inferior end of the esophagus which is more constricted than the rest.
The mucosa of the esophagus is made from?
Nonkeratinezed stratified squamous epithelium.
The muscularis externa is composed of which two types of muscle?
Skeletal muscle and smooth muscle.
Swallowing is coordinated by the?
Swallowing center, a nucleus in the medulla oblongata and pons.
Swallowing occurs in which two phases?
Buccal and pharyngeal-esophageal.
In what phase does the root of the tongue block the oral cavity?
The soft palate rises and blocks the?
A wave of muscular contraction that pushes the bolus ahead of it?
In the Buccal phase, what is the functon of the tongue?
Collects food and pushes it back into the oropharynx.
Function of the Lower esophageal sphincter during swallowing?
Relaxes to admit bolus to the stomach.
Functions of the stomach?
Mechanically breaks up food particles, liquifies food and begins chemical digestion of protein and fat.
Chyme is the result of?
The chemical digestion of proteins and fat in the stomach.
The stomach is divided into what four regions?
Cardiac, fundic, body and pyloric.
Cardiac region is?
small area immediately inside the cardiac orifice.
The fundic region is?
dome shaped portion superior to the esophageal attachment.
Body region is?
Main portion of the organ.
Pyloric region is the narrow inferior end separated into what two regions?
antrum and pyloric canal.
What is the narrow passage that is the opening to the duodenum.
This sphincter surrounds the pylorus and regulates the passage of chyme into the duodenum.
Pyloric sphincter.
All blood drained from the stomach and intestines enters what type of circulation?
Hepatic portal circulation.
The stomach mucosa is made from
simple columnar glandular epithelium.
When the stomach is empty, the mucosa and submucosa form conspicuous wrinkles called?
Gastric rugae.
The muscularis externa has how many layers?
What are the three layers?
Outer longitudinal layer, middle circular layer and inner oblique layer.
The gastric mucosa of the stomach is pocked with depressions called?
Gastric pits.
Mucous cells secrete?
Mucous (for protection)
Function of regenerative stem cells?
Divide rapidly and produce a continual supply of new cells.
Function of parietal cells?
Secrete HCI and intrinsic factor.
Function of chief cells?
most numerous and secrete chymosin, and lipase in infancy and pepsinogen throughout life.
Function of enteroendocrine cells?
Secrete hormones and paracrine messengers that regulate digestion.
Gastric glands produce how many liters of gastric juice per day?
2 to 3 liters.
Gastric juice is composed mainly of?
Water, HCI and pepsin.
High ph blood that leaves the stomach when digestion is occuring is called?
Alkaline tide.
What activates the enzymes pepsin and lingual lipase?
HCI converts ingested ferric ions to ferrous ions that can do what?
Be absorbed and utilized for hemoglobin synthesis.
Ultimate function of pepsin?
Digest dietary proteins to shorter peptide chains which pass to the small intestine where their digestion is completed.
Several digestive enzymes are secreted as inactive proteins called?
Zymogens are then converted to active enzymes by what?
The removal of some of their amino acids.
In infants chief cells secrete?
Gastric lipase and chymosin (rennin)
What are the functions of gastric lipase and chymosin in infants?
Gastric lipase digests some of the buttermilk of fat while chymosin curdles milk.
Intrinsic factor is essential for what?
The absorption of vitamin B12 by the small intestine.
Without vitamin B12 what cannot be synthesized?
The swallowing center is located where?
Medulla oblongta.
The swallowing center does what as you begin to swallow?
Signals the stomach to relax.
The arriving food stretches the stomach and activates what?
The receptive relaxaton response of smooth muscles.
Peristaltic contractions are controlled by?
pacemaker cells in the longitudinal muscle layer.
A gentle ripple of contraction every 20 seconds contributes to what?
Churns and mixes food with gastric juice.
As a peristaltic wave passes down into the antrum, it squirts out about 3ml of chyme into the?
Typical meal is emptied from stomach in about?
4 hours.
Vomiting is induced by what three stimuli?
Excessive stretching of the stomach, psychological stimuli and chemical irritants.
The emetic center in the medulla causes?
The LES to relax as the diaphragm and abdominal muscles contract.
Most digestion and nearly all nutrient absorption occur when?
After the chyme passes into the small intestine.
Gastric activity is divided into three stages called?
Cephalic, Gastric and Intestinal phases.
The stage in which the stomach reponds to the mere sight smell or taste of food?
This phase is a period in which swallowed food and semidigested protein acivate gastric activity.
Gastric Phase.
Gastric secretion is stimulated chiefly by what three chemicals?
Acetycholine, histamine and gastrin.
Acetycholine or Ach is secreted by?
paraympathetic nerve fibers.
Histamine is secreted by
gastric enteroendocrine cells.
Gastrin is secreted by
G cells.
Receptors for histamine Ach and gastrin are found where?
Parietal cells and chief cells.
About two thirds of gastric digestion occurs in what phase?
Gastric phase.
Chief cells secrete pepsinogen in response to?
Gastrin and Ach.
The stage in which the duodenum responds to arriving chyme and moderates gastric activity through hormones and nervous reflexes.
Intestinal phase.
Stretching of the duodenum increases what?
Gastric activity.
The enterogastric reflex sends what?
Inhibitory signals to the stomach and sends signals to the medulla.
Chyme stimulates duodenal enteroendocrine cells to relase what?
Secretin, cholecystokinin (cck) and gastric inhibitory peptide (gip)
Secretin, CCK and GIP are hormones that do what?
Supress gastric secretion and motility.
The liver is located where?
Inferior to the diaphragm.
The liver does what in relation to digestion?
Secretes bile.
Liver has how many lobes?
What seperates the right and left?
Falciform ligament.
Gallbladder is located where in relation to the liver?
ventral surface, between right and quadrate lobes.
Central vein of the liver is surrounded by ?
Sheets of hepatocyte cells separated by sinusoids.
Blood in liver is filtered by?
Hepatocytes on way to central vein.
The liver secretes bile into narrow channels called?
Bile canaliculi.
Bile passes from there into small bile ductules and into the right and left ____?
hepatic ducts.
The two hepatic ducts converge on the inferior side of the liver to form the______.
Common hepatic duct.
Function of the Sphincter of Oddi?
Regulates release of bile and pancreatic juice into the duodenum.
Name and function of sac on underside of Liver.
Gallbladder, stores and concentrates bile.
Yellow green fluid containing minerals, cholesterol, neutral fats, phosholipids, bile pigments and bile acids is termed?
The principal pigment of bile is termed ?
Bile gets into the gallbladder by first filling the bile duct and then?
overflowing into the gallbladder.
The liver secretes about?
500 to 1000 ml of bile per day.
This organ is both an endocrine and exocrine gland?
The endocrine part of the pancreas secretes what into the blood.
Insulin and glucagon.
The exocrine part of the pancreas secretes about?
1500 ml of pancreatic juice per day.
Pancreatic duct runs length of gland to open at?
spincter of oddi.
The pancreatic zymogens are?
Trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, procarboxypeptidase.
Pancreatic enzymes also include amylase, which digests starch, lipase which digest fat and ribonulease and deoxyribonuclease which digest???
This hormone causes contraction of gallbladder, secretion of pancreatic enzymes and relaxation of hepatopancreatic sphincter.
Nearly all chemical digestion and nutrient absorption occur in the _____?
Small intestine.
The mucosa of the small intestine is highly folded with what features?
Circular folds, villi, microvilli, forming a brush border.
The small intestine is divided into what three regions?
Duodenum, Jejunum and ileum.
True/False Duodenum is retroperitoneal.
Function of Duodenum?
Receives stomach contents, pancreatic juice and bile.
Stomach acid is neutralized, fats are broken up by bile acids and pepsin is inactivated here?
This portion is covered with serosa, and suspended by mesentery.
The ileum is also covered with serosa and suspended by mesentery and ends where?
Ileocecal junction.
The largest folds of the intestinal wall are called?
Circular folds.
On the floor of the small intestine, between the bases of the villi, there are numerous pores that lead to tubular glands called?
Intestinal crypts.
The duodenum has prominent _____ glands.
Brunner glands.
Brunner glands secrete?
bicarbonate mucus.
Peyer patches are found where?
The ilieum.
Function of Peyers patches?
Populations of lymphocytes to fight pathogens.
Intestinal crypts secrete _____ Liters of intestinal juice per day.
Intestinal juice contains___ and ____ .
water and mucous.
Ph of intestinal juice ranges from __ to ___.
Contractions of the small intestine serve what three functions?
mix chyme with intestinal juice, bile and pancreatic juice,2) churns chyme to increase contact with mucosa for absorption, and digestion 3)move residue towards large intestine.
random ringlike constrictions that mix and churn contents of small intestine?
Purpose of segmentation?
Mix and churn.
Def of peristalsis?
Gradual movement of contents toward the colon.
Most digestible dietary carbohydrate is _____.
What are the fat soluable vitamins?
The colon is part of what intestine? Located between ____ and _____.
large intestine, between, iliocecal junction and anal canal.
The colon is divided into what three areas?
Ascending, transverse, and descending.