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68 Cards in this Set

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What are the four stages of digestive function?
ingestion, digestion, absorption, defecation.
Def of ingestion?
The selective intake of food.
Def of digestion?
The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into a form usable by the body.
Def of absorption?
The uptake of nutrient molecules into epithelial cells of the digestive tract and then into the blood or lymph.
Def of defecation?
The elimination of undigested residue.
Two facets of the digestion stage?
Mechanical and chemical
The physical breakdown of food into smaller particles?
Mechanical digestion
A series of hydrolysis reactions that break dietary macromolecules into their monomers?
Chemical digestion.
Polysaccharides are broken down into?
monosaccharides.
Proteins are broken down into?
amino acids.
Fats are broken down into?
glycerol and fatty acids.
Nucleic acids are broken down into?
nucleotides.
Chemical digestion is carried out by the digestive enzymes produced by?
Salivary glands, stomach, pancreas and small intestine.
Digestion involves what three processes?
Motility, secretion, and membrane transport.
_____ releases enzymes, hormones, and other products that carry out or regulate digestion?
Secretion.
What are the two anatomical subdivisions of the digestive system?
Digestive tract and accessory organs.
The digestive tract extends from the _____ to the _____.
Mouth to anus.
The digestive tract includes?
oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines and large intestine.
The stomach and intestines constitute the?
G.I. tract.
The esophagus, stomach, and intestines have a nervous network called?
Enteric nervous system.
_____ regulates digestive tract motility, secretion, and blood flow?
Enteric nervous system.
The mouth is known as the?
oral or buccal cavity.
Teeth are embedded in sockets called?
Alveolus.
Most of a tooth consists of hard yellowish tissue called?
Dentin.
Enamel is a living tissue? T/F
False
The meeting of the teeth when the mouth closes is called?
occlusion.
Dentin and cementum are living tissues that can regenerate? T/F?
True
_____ breaks food into pieces small enough to be swallowed and exposes more surface to the action of digestive enzymes.
Mastication
Enzyme of starch/amylose?
Salivary amylase.
Product of Salivary amylase?
Dextrins/short chain starch.
Production site of Salivary amylase?
Salivary glands.
Is product absorbed?
No
Enzyme of Protein?
Pepsin
Product of Pepsin
Polypeptides/ short proteins
Production site of pepsin?
Stomach
Is it absorbed?
no
Enzyme of lipid?
Lipase
Product of lipase?
3 Fatty acids and 1 glycerol.
Production site of lipase?
Pancrease
Is it absorbed?
Yes, into lacteals.
Enzyme of polypeptides/short proteins?
Trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase?
Product of Trypsin,chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase?
polypeptide fragments.
Production site of Trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase?
Pancreas
Is product absorbed?
No
Enzyme of Dextrins/short chain starch?
Pancreatic amylase
Product of pancreatic amylase?
Maltose
Production site of Pancreatic amylase?
Pancreas
Is product absorbed?
No
Enzyme of polypeptide fragments?
Peptidases
Product of Peptidases?
amino acids
Production site of peptidases
Small intestine epithelium.
Is product absorbed?
Yes into capillaries
Enzyme of Maltose?
Maltase.
Product of maltase?
Glucose
Production site of Maltase ?
Small intestine epithelium.
Is this product absorbed?
Yes into capillaries
Enzyme of Sucrose?
Sucrase
Product of Sucrase?
Gluctose and fructose
Production site of Sucrase?
Small intestine epithelium.
Is it absorbed?
yes into capillaries.
Enzyme of Lactose?
Lactase
Products of Lactase?
Glucose and galactose
production site of Lactase?
Small intestine epithelium
is product absorbed?
Yes - into capillaries
Enzyme of lipids?
Gastric lipase
Product of lipids?
3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol
Production site of lipids?
Salivary glands
Is product absorbed?
yes into lacteals.