Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The science of behavior and mental processes.
Nature-Nurture Issues
The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors
Natural Selection
The principle that, among the range o finherited trait cariations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to suceeding generations.
Basic Research
Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
Applied Research
Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
Clinical Psychology
A branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.
A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy
hindsight bias
(the-i-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)
the tendency to believe that you knew all along something was gonna happen a certain way, after finding out the outcome.
Critical Thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conlusions.
It examines assumptions, figures out hidden values, evaluates evidence and determines conclusions.
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations.
A testable oredictions, often implied by a theory
Operational Definition
A statement of the procedures used to define research variables.
Repeating the essence of a reseach study, usually with different subjects in different situations, to see whether the basic finding generalizes to other participants and circumstances.
Case Study
An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles.
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
False consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
Random Sample
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
Naturalistic Observation
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occuring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other.
A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of points suggests the direction of the relationship b/t the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation.
Illusory Correlation
The perception of a relationship where nouse exists.
A research method in which an investigator manupulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process.
["i shall please"]
an inert sunstance or conditions that may be administered instead of a presumed active agent, such as a drug, to see of it triggers the effects believed to characterize the active agent.
Double Blind Procedure
An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or placebo.
Placebo Effect
Any effect on behavior caused by a placebo.
Experimental Condition
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
Control Condition
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the ecperimental confition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
Random Assignment
Assigning participants to ecperimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.
Independent Value
the experimental factor that is manipulated ; & whose effect is being studied
the most occuring, or most often repeated
the score in the middle
the range between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
Standard Deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
Statistical Significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occured by chance.
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of poeple and transmitted from one generation to the next