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129 Cards in this Set

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Dependent Variable
The outcome factor; the variable may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
Independent variable
The expiramental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
Control Condition
The condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
Experimental Condition
The condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
False Consensus Effect
The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
Operational Definition
A statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligent test measures.
Statistical Significance
A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occured by chance.
Standard Deviation
A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
Interaction
The effects of one factor depends on another factor.
Assimilation
Interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas.
Cognition
All the mental activities associated with, thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
Sensorimotor Stage
In Piaget’s theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years old) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.
Preoperational Stage
In Piaget’s theory, the stage (age 2 to 6 or 7) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
Concrete Operational Stage
In Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (ages 6-7 to 11) during which children gain mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.
Formal Operational Stage
In Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (age 12 and up) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
Temperament
A person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.
Behavior Genetics
The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.
Basic Trust
According to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.
Social Learning Theory
The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
Cross-Sectional Study
A study in which people of different ages are compared with one another.
Operational Definition
A statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligent test measures.
Statistical Significance
A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occured by chance.
Standard Deviation
A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
Interaction
The effects of one factor depends on another factor.
Assimilation
Interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas.
Cognition
All the mental activities associated with, thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
Sensorimotor Stage
In Piaget’s theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years old) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.
Preoperational Stage
In Piaget’s theory, the stage (age 2 to 6 or 7) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
Concrete Operational Stage
In Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (ages 6-7 to 11) during which children gain mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.
Formal Operational Stage
In Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (age 12 and up) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
Temperament
A person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.
Behavior Genetics
The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.
Basic Trust
According to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.
Social Learning Theory
The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
Cross-Sectional Study
A study in which people of different ages are compared with one another.
Longitudinal Study
Research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period.
Crystallized Intelligence
One’s accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age. Wisdom.
Fluid Intelligence
One’s ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late childhood.
Collectivism
Giving priority to the goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly.
Gender-Typing
The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role.
Molecular Genetics
The subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes.
Conservation
The principle that properties such as mass, volume, and numbers remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.
Theory of Mind
People’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states; about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict.
Mutation
Random error in gene replication that leads to a change.
Natural Selection
The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
Evolutionary Psychology
The study of the evolution of behavior and the mind using principles of natural selection.
Measure of Central Tendency
A single score that represents a whole set of scores.
Variation in Data
How similar or diverse the scores.
Unconditioned Response (UR)
In classical condition, the unlearned, naturally occuring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally, both naturally and automatically, triggers a response.
Conditioned Response (CR)
In classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS).
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response (CR).
Generalization
The tendency for stimuli similiar to the CS to elicit simliar responses once a response has been conditioned.
Discrimination
In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and stimuli thta do not signal a US.
Operant Conditioning
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
Respondant Behavior
Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; Skinner's term for behavior learned through classical conditioning.
Operant Behavior
Behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences.
Law of Effect
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely to recur, while behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.
Shaping
Skinner used shaing, an operant conditioning procedure during which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior. Pigeon taught to walk in circles.
Positive Reinforcement
Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
Negative Reinforcement
Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus, that, when removed, after a response, strengthens the response. (It isn't punishment, it is the cessation of such)
Primary Reinforcer
An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one thta satisfies a biological need. (Ex: Having sex for satisfaction)
Conditioned Reinforcer (Secondary Reinforcer)
Stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer. (Ex: money)
Continuous Reinforcement
Reinforcing the desired response every time it occur. (Ex: Press button= get food. So, keep pressing button b/c you keep getting food.)
Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement
Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in lower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement.
Fixed-Ratio Schedule
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
Variable-Ratio Schedule
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
Fixed-Interval Schedule
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
Variable-Interval Schedule
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
Latent Learning
Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it. (Ex:rats knowledge of maze for food.)
Intrinsic Motivation
A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake.
Extrinsic Motivation
A desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment.
Flashbulb Memory
A clear memory of an emotionally significant event or memory.
Sensory Memory
The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
Working Memory
A newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial info, and of info retrieved from long-term memory.
Automatic Processing
Unconscious encoding of incidental info, such as space, time, frequency, and of well-learned info, such as word meanings.
Spacing Effect
The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better longterm retention than is achieved through massed study or practice. (Opposite of cramming.)
Serial Position Effect
Our tendency to best recall the last and first items in a list.
Mnemonics
Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
Iconic Memory.
A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
Intrinsic Motivation
A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake.
Extrinsic Motivation
A desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment.
Flashbulb Memory
A clear memory of an emotionally significant event or memory.
Sensory Memory
The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
Working Memory
A newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial info, and of info retrieved from long-term memory.
Automatic Processing
Unconscious encoding of incidental info, such as space, time, frequency, and of well-learned info, such as word meanings.
Spacing Effect
The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better longterm retention than is achieved through massed study or practice. (Opposite of cramming.)
Serial Position Effect
Our tendency to best recall the last and first items in a list.
Mnemonics
Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
Iconic Memory.
A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
Echoic Memory
A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
Long-term Potentiation (LTP)
Prolongued strengthening of potential neural firing. Neural basis for learning and remembering associations.
Implicit Memory
Retention independent of conscious recollection.
Explicit Memory
Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare."
Priming
The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associationgs in memory. (Ex: Say stop ten times... Now, what do you do at a green light?)
Mood Congruent Memory
The tendency to recall experiences that consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
Proactive Interference
The disruptive effect prior learning on the recall of new information.
Retroactive Interference
The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.
Repression
In psychoanalytic theory, the base defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.
Associative Learning
Learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two small stimuli or a response and its consequences.
Classical Conditioning
Type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals a US begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the US. Also called Pavlonian.
Behaviorism
View that pyschology 1) should be an objective science that 2) studies behavior w/o reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) and not (2).
Acquisition
The strengthening of a reinforced response. The initial stage in classical conditioning. The phase associated with a US so that the NS comes to elicit a CR.
Drive-Reduction Theory
The idea that physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
Homeostasis
A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level.
Incentive
A positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior.
Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's pyramind of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher level safety needs and then psychological needs become active.
Set Point
The point at which a person's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.
Sexual Response Cycle
The four stages of sexual response described by Masters & Johnson: Excitement, Plateau, Orgasm, Resolution
Free Association
In psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
Psychoanalysis
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions.
Unconscious
According to Freud, a resevoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.
ID
Contains a resevoir of unconscious pyschic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification. (Ex: the little devil on your shoulder.)
Ego
The largely conscious, "exucutive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.
Superego
The part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscious) and for future aspirations.
Psychosexual Stages
The childhood stages of development (oral, anal,phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.
Identification
The process by which, according to Freud, children incorperate their parent's values into their developing superegos.
Fixation
According to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved.
Projective Test
A personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.
Rorschach Inkblot Test
The most widely used projective test, a set of ten inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.
Trait
A characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports.
Self-Actualization
According to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential.
Empirically Derived Test
A test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups.
The Big Five Factors
Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Neuroticism (emotional stability vs. instability), openness, extraversion.
Social-Cognitive Perspective
Views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and their social context.
Reciprocal Determinism
The interacting influences between personality and environmental factors.
External Locus of Control
The perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate.
Internal Locus of Control
The perception that one controls one's own fate.