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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The Brain - (components)
1. Hindbrain
a. Medulla, pons, reticular activating system, cerebellum
b. Responsible for reflexive, automatic behavior
2. Midbrain - information conduit
3. Forebrain
a. Thalamus - directs sensory messages
b. Hypothalamus - emotion and survival drives
c. Pituitary gland - controls many other endocrine glands
d. Cerebral cortex
i. Occipital lobes - vision
ii. Parietal lobes - sensory information
iii. Temporal lobes - process sounds
iv. Frontal lobes - motor movements
4. Two brain hemispheres
a. Each one controls opposite side of body.
b. Left hemisphere dominant for most people.
Communication between Neurons
a. Synapses - gaps between neurons
b. Message travels trhough axon to synaptic knob on axon's tip.
c. Synaptic vesicles open and release neurotransmitter into synaptic gap.
d. Neurotransmitter fits into receptor sites on receiving dendrite, causing it to be more or less likely to fire
Schedules of Reinforcement for Operant Conditioning
1.Continuous reinforcement - a particular response is always reinforced.
2. Intermittent reinforcerment - reinforcing only some responses.
a. Fixed Ration (FR) - reinforcement after a fixed number of responses, high rates fo responding.
b. Variable Ratio (VR) - reinforcement after a fixed number of responses, high rates of responding.
c. Fixed interval (FI) - reinforcement after fixed amount of time, scalloped response pattern.
d. Variable Interval (VI) - reinforcement after a variable amount of time, low, steady reate fo response.
Communication within Nervous System (components)
1.Neuron - basic unit of nervouse system
a. Cell body - keeps neuron alive
b. Dendrites - recieve information from other neurons
c. Axons - send information from other neurons
i. Myelin - insulates axon to enable information to be transfitted faster.

Measuring Sensation
1. Absolute Thresholds - detection of signal 50 % of time
2. Difference Thresholds - (j.n.d.) Just Noticeable Difference
a. Difference in senstation detectable 50% of time
b. Weber's Law - Change necessary for j.n.d. is a proportion of original stimulus.
What is sensation?
Awareness of physical changes
What are the goals of psychology?
To describe, understand, predict and control (or modify) behavior or mental processes.
What is Psychology?
Scientific study of behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism's physical and mental state and external environment.
Principles of Operant Conditioning
a. Extinction - response no longer reinforced
b. Stimulus generalization - response will occur to similar stimuli
c. Stimulus discrimination - response do not occur to similar stimuli
d. Timing of reinforcers - responses do not occur to differnt stimuli
e. Schedules of Reinforcement (see other card)
f. Shaping - reinforce sucessive approximations to the desired response.
Classical Conditioning (Pavlov's Studies)
a. Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) - food - elicits an unconditioned response (UCR) - salivation.
b. Pair neutral stimulus - tone - with UCS - food.
c. Neutral stimulus becomes conditioned stimulus (CS) - tone - which elicits conditioned response (CR) - salivation
Principles of Classical Conditioning
a. Extinction - when the CS is not presented with the UCS, it will diminish.
b. Stimulus generalization - similar stimuli may elicit the same response to the CS.
c. Stimulus discrimination - different responses are made to stimuli which are similar to CS.
Operant Conditioning (components)
1. Reinforcer (reward) - increases response probability.
a. Positive reinforcement - response followed by presentation of reinforcing stimulus.
2. Punishment - stimulus that follows response decreases probability response will occur.
What is the structure of the nervous system?
1. Central - brain and spinal cord
2. Peripheral - sensory and motor nerves which transmit information
a. Somatic - control skeletal muscles
b. Autonomic - regulates interal organs and glands
i. Parasympathetic - conserves energy
ii. Sympathetic - expends energy.