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278 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is trephination?
Stonage Age human paractice of carving holes through the skull to release evil spirits.
What is structuralism?
idea that the mind operates by combining subjective emotions adn objective sensations.
When did William James publish The Principles of Psychology?
What was Jame's theory called?
Who is a Gestalt psychologist?
Max Wertheimer
Does Gestlat psychology have an influence on modern psychology
Relativley little influence
Who established behaviorism?
John Watson
What did B.F. Skinner add to the basic ideas of behaviorism?
When was behaviorism the dominant school of thought in psychology?
What are the 7 psychological perspectives?
1. Humanist
2. Psychoanalytic
3. Biopsychology
4. Evolutionary
5. Behavioral
6. Cognitive
7. Socio-Cultural
What are determinsitic behaviorists?
Theorized that all behaviors are caused by past conditioning.
What do humanist psychologists believe our behaviors are driven by?
Psychological, emotional, ad spiritual needs
Why is structuralism considered empirical?
It was based on results of Wilhelm Wundt's introspection experiments.
What technique did Wundt use to research his theory of structuralism?
Technique of introspection
What are field experiments?
Experiments conducted in the world.
What is group matching and how is it done?
Ensuring that the experimental and control gropus were equivalent on some criterion, (such as sex, IQ, and age); group matching would not results int he same number of males and females within each group. Rather, alf tof the males and half of the females would be in each of the groups.
What are demand characteristics?
Cues about the purpose of the study; subjects use such cues to try to respond appropriately; (confouding variable)
What is the Hawthorne effect?
Merely selecting a group of people on whome to experiment has been determined to affect hte performance of that group, regardless of what is done to those individuals.
What is counterbalancing?
Using subjects as their own control group.
Give an example of how testing a hypothesis with an experiment can be impossible.
If you want to test the hypothesis that boys are more likely to call out in class than girls. Subjects, obviously, cannot be randomly assiged to conditions. Boys are boys, and girls are girls. The assignement of the independent variable has been predetermined.
Though a hypothesis may be impossible to test, what type of study results in the controlling of all other aspets of the process?
Ex post facto study.
Describe z scores.
Measure the distance of a score from the mean in un its of standard deviation. Scoresbelow the mean have negative z scores, while scores above the mean have positive z scores. For example, if Clarence scored 72 with a mean of 80 and a standard deviation of 8, Clarence's z score would be -1, (he fulfilled 100% of the standard deviation)
What s hte purpose of inferential statistics?
To determine when findings can be applied to the larger population.
What are 3 inferential statistics tests?
t-tests, ANOVAs, and MANOVAs.
Describe how the p value works?
The smaller the p value, the more significant the results.
What is the cutoff p value for statistically significant results?
0.05, (means 5% chance that the results occurred by chance)
What are the 5 standards that must be met for research involving human subjects?
1. Informed consent
2. Coercion
3. Anonymity/Confidentialy
4. Risk
5. Debriefing procedures
If one picks out oa hat to assign each of three classes to an experimental conditions, is it random assignemnt or random sampeling?
Random assignment
How are the charges situated in a neuron?
Negative within the cell; positive surrounding the cell
What is acetycholine involved in and what are the problems associated with a lack of it?
Involved in motor movement; lack associated with Alzheimer's disease
What is dopamine involved in and what are the problems associated with a lack and excess of it?
Involved in motor movement and alertness; lack associated with Parkinson's disease; excess associated with schizophrenia
What is serotonin involved in?
Mood control
What are afferent neurons?
Take information from the sense to the brain.
What is an electroencephalogram?
detects brain waves; researchers can examine what type of waves the brain produces during diff. stages of consciousness and use info. to generalize about brain function; used in sleep research
What is a Computerized Axial Tomography scan?
Sophisticated X ray; can show only the structure of the brain, not the functions or the activity of different brain structures; doctor can use CAT scan to look at tumor, but cannot get any information about how active different parts of the brain are
What is a Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan?
Uses magnetic fields to measure the denisty and location of brain material;gives doctors information about only the structure of the brain, not the function
What is a Positron Emission Tomography?
Lets researchers see hwhat areas of the brain are most active during certain tastks; measures how much of a certain chemical parts of the brain are using.
What are the safety benefits of MRI over CAT scan?
Since the MRI does not use X rays like the CAT scan does, the pateint is not exposed to carcinogenic radiation
What is a Functional MRI scan?
A new technology that combines elemtns of the MRI and PET scans. An fMRI scan can show details of brian structure with information about blood flow in the brain, tying brian structure to brain activity during cognitive tasks.
What does the pons do?
Connects the hindbrain wiht the midbrain and forebrain; involved in the contorl of facial expressions.
In general, what does the midbrain do?
Coordinates simple movements with sensory information.
What is the retircular formation?
A netlike collection of cells throughout the hindbrain that control sgeneral body arousal and the ability to focus our attention.
What happens if the reticular formation does not function?
W efall into a deep coma.
What is libido?
Sexual arousal
What parts of the brain compose the limbic system?
Thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus
Split brain patients cannot orally report information only presented to which hemisphere?
What is Broca's area responsible for controlling?
Muslces producing speech
What is Wernicke's area responsible for controlling?
Understanding speech
Where is Broca's area located?
Frontal lobe
Where is Wernicke's area located?
temporal lobe
Where is the sensory cortex located?
Parietal lobe
Where is the motor cortex located?
Frontal lobe
What was Tom Bouchard's experiment?
Found more than 100 idential twins who were given up for adoption and raised in different families; the study compared hundreds of traist and concluded about the relative influences of genetics and enfironment on specific traits
What was the coefficient of correlation on IQ testing of idential twin's in Bouchard's experiment?
What is Turners' syndrome and what are characteristics that result from it?
Babies born with only a single X chromoson in the spot usually occupied by the twenty-third pair; causes some physical characteristics, such as shortness, webbed necks, and differences in physical sexual development.
What is Klinefelter's syndrome and what are the characteristics that result from it?
Babies born with an extra X chromosome, resulting in an XXY pattern; effects vary widely, but usually cause minimal sexual development and personality traits like extreme introversion
What is transduction?
Signals are transofmed into neural impulses
What does the pupil do?
Acts like the shutter of a camera
What are the muscles that control the pupil?
Are there more rods or cones?
Rods, (the ratio is approximatley 20 to 1)
Does the fovea contain the highets concentration of rods or cones?
Describe the transduction of visual stimuli.
1. If enough rods and cones fire in an area of the retina, they activate the next layer of bipolar cells
2. If enough bipolar cells fire, the next layer of cells, ganglion cells, is activated. (The axones of the ganglion cells maek up the optic nerve that sends these impulses toa specific region in the thalamus, called the lateral genicular nucleus.
What is the blind spot?
The spot where the optical nerve leaves the retain that has no rods or cones
Describe the two parts of he optic nerve
Impulese from teh left side of each retain go to the left hemispehere of the brain; impulses from teh right side of each retain go to the right hemisphere of our brain
What is the spot called where the two parts of the optic nerve cross each other?
Optic chiasm
What did Hubel and Weisel discover?
Groups of neurons in the visual cortex respond to different types of visual images
What does the visual cortex have feature detectors for?
Vertical lines, curves, motion, and many other features of images. What we perceive visually is a combination of these features.
What are the three colors of the trichromatic theory?
Blue, red, and gree
What two visual phenomena cannot be explained byt he trichromatic theory?
Afterimages and color blindness
What are the three color pairs in the opponent-process theory?
Red/green, yellow/blue, black/white
Do individual cones appear to correspond best to the trichromatic theory or opponent-process theory?
Do entire layers of the retina correspond best to the trichromatic thery or opponent-process theory?
What does amplitude determine?
What are the units used to measure amplitude?
What is another name for the eardrum?
Tympanic membrane
What is the path of sound as it is transduced in the ear?
Ear druem--hammer--anvil--stirrup--oval window--cochlea--the floor of the cochlea is lined with hair cells connected to the organ of Corti, which is activated by movement of the hair cells; when hair cells move, transduction occurs
What are other names for the hammer, anvil, and stirrups?
hammer - malleus
anvil - incus
stirrup - stapes
What is the place theory?
The hair cell sin the cochlea respond to different frequencies of sound based on where they are locate din the cochlea; some bend in respond to high pitches and some to low; we sense pitch, because the hair cells move in different places in the cochlea
What is the frequency theory?
Lower tones are sensed by the rate at which the cells fire; we sense pitch,b ecause the hair cells fire at different rates, (frequencies), in the cochlea
Does the place theory describe how higher or lower pitches are sensed?
What is the gate-control theory?
Helps explain how we experience pain the way we do; some pain messages have a higher prioirty than others; when a higher priority message sis ent, the gate swings open fro it and swings shut for a low priority message, which we will not feel
What are taste buds located on?
What are small receptor cells linked to?
The olfactory bulb
Describe the olfactory bulb.
Gathers messages from teh olfactory receptor cells and send this information directly to the brain
What do nerve fibers from teh olfactory bulb connect to?
Connect to the brain at the amygdala ad then to the hippocampus, which make up the limibc system; connection to the limbic system may explain why smell is such a powerful trigger fro memories
What does the vestibular sense tell us?
How our body is oriented in space
What organ is responsible for the vestibular sense?
Semicircular canals in the inner ear
What is the kinesthetic sense?
Gives us feedback about the position and oientation of specific boyd parts; provides information about where your finger is in relation to your kneecap
What is Webers' law?
States that the change needed to detect a difference is proportional to the original intensity of the simulus; the more intesne the stimulus, the more it will need to change before we notice a difference; each sense varies according to a constant, but the constants differ between the sense; the constant for hear is 5%; that of vision is 8%
What is the signal detection theory?
Investigates the effects of the distractions and interference we experience while perceiving the world. Takes into account how motivated we are to detect certain stimuli and what we expect to perceive, (response criteria) For example, will a surgeon see the tumor on the CAT scan maong all the irrelevant shadows and flaws in the picture?
What is a false positive in the signal detection teory?
We perceive a stimuluus that is not there
Give an example of top-down processing.
Filling in gaps in what we sense, such as trying to read the following sentence:
I _ope yo_ _et a 5 on t__ A_ e_am.
What do you call the predisposition to perceive somethin gin a certain way?
Pereptual set
What is backmasking?
Supposedly hidden messages recorded backward in music. Studies have shown that these backward lyrics are asically random noise; if you expect ot hear a threatening message in the random noise, you probably will, (top-down processing)
What is another name for bottom-up processing?
Feature analysis
Describe bottom-up processing.
Instead of using our experience to perceive an object, we use only the features of the obejct itself to built a complete perception
Is top-down processing faster or slower/more or less prone to error than bottom-up processing?
Top-down processing is faster/more prone to error than bottom-up processing
What did E.J. Gibson do?
Used the visual cliff experiment to determine when human infants can perceive depth.
What are 4 monocular cues?
1. Relative size cue
2. Interposition cue
3. Texture gradient
4. Shadowing
What are 2 binocular cues?
1. Retinal disparity, (also called binocular disparity)
2. Convergence - as objects get closer to your face, our eyes must move toward one another to keep focusedo nthe object
What is the Muller-Lyer illusion and what group of people are not fooled by it?
LInes appear to be different sizes, depending on how their ends are tapered; people who come from noncarpeted cultures that do not use right angles and corners often in their building and architecture are not usually fooled by the Muller-Lyer illusion
What is the mere-exposure effect?
Occurs when we prefer stimuli we have seen before over novel stimuli, even if we do not consciously remember seeing the old stimuli
What is the difference between preconscious, subconscious, and unconscious?
Preconscious - information about yourself or your environment that you are not currently thinking about, but you could be

Subconscious - information that we are not consciously aware of, but we know must exist due to behavior

Unconscious - concept that is difficult or impossible to prove
What do you call the period when you are falling asleep?
Sleep onset
During what stages of sleep are our brains experiencing intense activity?
When we return to stage one; REM - periods of intense activity when our eyes dart back and forth; many muscles may twitch repeatedly
As we near morning and naturally awake, what stages do you spend more time in?
Stages 1 and 2
How percent of the population does insomnia affect?
What is manifest content?
Literal content of our dreams
What is the activation-synthesis theory of dreams?
Looks at dreamsfirst as biological phenomna; proposes that perhaps dreams are nothing more htan the brain's interpretaions of what is happening physiologicaly during REM sleep
What type of physical condition uspports the activation-synthesis theory?
Split-brain pateitns sometimes make up elaborate explanations for behaviors, caused by their opration.
What is the information-processing theory?
Dreaming falls somewhere between the Freud and activation-syntehsis theories; points out that stress during the day will increase the number and intensity of dreams during the night; most people report their dream content relates somehow to daily concerns
What are two charcteristics of hypnosis?
1. Posthypnotic amnesia
2. Posthypnotic suggestion
What is the role theory?
States that hypnosis is not an alternate stae of consciousness. Points out that some people are more easily hypnotized than others, a characteristics called hypnotic suggestibility; people are acting out the role of a hypnotized person and folloinwg the suggestions of the hypnotist, because that is what is expected of the role
What is the state theory?
Points out that hypnosis meets some parts of the definition for an altered state of consciousness
What is the dissociation theory?
Hypnosis causes us to divide our consciousness voluntarily; the presence of a hidden observer comes out
What are 3 theories of hypnosis?
1. Role theory
2. State theory
3. Dissociation theory
What are the thicker walls surrounding the brain's blood vessels that protect the brain from harmful chemical sin the lboodstream called?
Blood-brain barrier
What are drugs that mimic neurotransmitters called?
What are agonists?
Drugs that mimic neurotransmitters
What are drugs that block neurotransmitters called?
What are two ways that antagonists work?
1. Prevent the natural neurotransmitters from using the receptor site
2. Prevent natural neurotransmitters from being reabsorbed back into a neuron, creating an abundance of that neurotransmitter in the synmapse
What are 4 stimulants?
Caffeine, cocaine, amphetamines, and nicotine
What are 3 depressants?
Alcohol, barbiturates, and anxiolytics, (tranquilizers or antianxiety drugs), like Valium
What type of drug is Valium?
An anxiolytic, (which is a depressant)
What are 4 hallucinogens?
1. LSD
2. Peyote
3. Psilocybin mushrooms
4. Marijuana
What is notable about hallucinogens?
Their persistence; some amount of these drugs may remain in the body for weeks; if an individual ingests the hallucinogen again during this time period, the new dose of the chemical is added to the lingering amount, creating more profound and potentially dangerous effects, (reverse tolerance)
What is reverse tolerance?
If an individual ingests the hallucinogen again during the time period when some of the drug still remains in their system, the new dose of the chemical is added to the lingering amount, creating more profound and potentially dangerous effects
What are the 4 types of drugs?
1. Stimulants
2. Depressnats
3. Hallucinogens
4. Opiates
What are the 4 types of conditioning?
1. Delayed
CS -----
2. Trace
US------ CS----
3. Stimulus
4. Backward
US ------
What is the most effective method of conditioning?
What is aversive conditioning?
Condtioning someone to have a negative reponse to something
What is second-order or higher-order conditioning?
Once a CS elicit a CR, it is ossible, briefly, to use that Cs as an US in order to condition a repsonse to a new stimulus
What was Garcia and Kelling's experiment?
Illustrated biological preparedness in classical conditioning; we can learn to link loud noise with shock and unusual-tasting water with nausea, but not the reverse; it seems to be adaptive
What experiment is associated with operant conditioning?
Skinner box
What is the law of effect?
States that if the consequences of a behavior are pleasant, the stimulus-response connection will be strengthened and the likelihoddo fhte behavior will increase., (associated with operant conditioning)
Who formulated the law of effect?
Edward Thorndike
What term did Thorndike use to describe his operant conditioning/law of effect work?
Instrumental learning, because he believed the consequence was instrumental in shaping hte future behaviors
What is the difference between reinforcement and punishment?
Reinforcement increases the likelihoddo f a behavior; punishment decreases the likelihood of a behavior
What are the 2 types of punishment?
1. Positive punishment - adds something negative, (getting a spanking)
2. Omission training/negative punishment - removing something pleasant, (no dessert)
What are the two types of learning associated with punishment?
1. Escape learning
2. Avoidance learning
What is the difference between shaping and chaining?
Whereas the goal of shaping is to mold a single behavior, the gal in haining is to link together a number of separate behaviors into a more complex activity
Give an example of generalization in a Skinner box.
If the rat began pressing other things in the box or the bar in other boxes
Give an exmaple of discrimination in a Skinner box.
Teaching the rat to press only a particular bar or press the bar only under certain conditions
What is a generalized reinforcer and give an example.
A reinforcer that can be used for anything, such as money
What is the Premack principle?
Explains that whichever of two activities is prefered can be used to reinforce the activity that is not preferred .
What type of schedule is there if a rat is reinforce dof rhte first response made after an average time of three minutes?
Variable Intervale; (average time)
What do radical behaviorists like Skinner assert?
Learning occurs without thought.
What is the contiguity model?
Posulates that the more times two things are paied, the greater the learning that will take place.
What is the contingency model of classical conditioning?
Rescorla's model that rests oupon a cognitive view that A is continegent upon B when A depends upon B and vice versa, (learning occurs best when US is paired with CS, rather than CS occurring without US sometimes)
Who studied observational learning?
Albert Bandura
Can observational learning occur between species?
What are the two basic components of mdoeling?
Observation and imitation
What studied latent learning?
Edward Tolman
What was Tolman's experiment?
Latent learning -
One group of rats gets a reward each time it runs through a maze, second group never gets a reward, third group only gets a reward during the second half

The third group's performance improved dramatically and suddently once it began to be rewarded for finishing the maze
What did Wolfgang Kohler study?
Insight learning; argued that learning often happened in this sudden way due to insight rather than, because of the gradual strengthening of the S-R connection suggested by behaviorists
What is insight learning?
Occurs when someone suddenly realizes how to solve a problem
What did George Sperling demonstrate?
Sensory memory; flahsed a grid of 9 letters
When do short-term memories usually fade?
10 to 30 seconds
What is the capacity for long-term memory?
Unlimited, as far as we know
What are the types of long-term memories in the information-processing model?
1. Episodic
2. Semantic
3. Procedural

1. Explicit
2. Implicit - if you're helping your friend clearn her house, you might find that you have implicity memories about how to scrub a floor properly after watching your parents do it for som many years
What is eidetic memory?
Photographic memory
Who studied eidetic memory?
Alexandra Luria; found a woman who could repeat 70 digits
What are the types of memory in the informatin-processing model?
1. Sensory
2. Short-term
3. Long-term
What is the Levels of Processing model of memory?
Memories are neither short- nor long-term; they are deeply, (elaboratively), processed or shallowly, (maintenance), processed
What is retroactive interference?
Learning new information interferes with the recall of older information
What is proative interference?
Older information learned previously interferes with the recall of older information learned more recently
What type of memory problems do people who have sufered damage to the hippocampus have?
Anterograde amnesia - they cannot encode new memories
What is long-term potentiation?
Neurons can strengthen connections between each other; through repeated firings, the connection is strengthened and the receiving neuron becomes more sensitive to the messages from the sending neuron
What are phonemes?
The smallest units of sound used ina language
How many phonemes are in the English vocabulary?
Approximately 44
What are morphemes?
The smallest units of meaningful sound, (can be parts of words or entire words)
What type of speech to toddlers use?
Telegraphic - simple commands
What is overgeneralization?
The misapplication of grammar rules
What did Benjamin Whorf theorize?
The linguistic relatively hypothesis - the language we use might control, and in some ways limit, our thinking
What are the 2 types of heuristics?
1. Availability heuristic - similar situations that come to mind initially
2. Representative heuristic - how similar the aspects are to prototypes
What are the 3 theories of motivation?
1. Drive-reduction theory
2. Arousal theory - we seek an optimum level of exciement or arousal
3. Incentive Theory - behavior is pulled by desire, not need
Describe the Yerkes-Dodson law.
We might perform well at an easy task with a very high level of arousal, but the same high level of arousal would prevent use from performing well on a difficult task.
How does the lateral hypothalamus affect hunger?
Causes an animal to eat.
How does the ventromedial hypothalamus affect hunger?
Causes an animal to stop eating.
What is the set-point theory?
Describe how hthe hypothalamus might decide what impulse to send; the hypothalamus wants to maintain a certain optimum body weight. When we drop below that weight, the hypothalamus tells use we should eat and lowers our metabolic rate.
What is the Garcia effect?
If you eat hot dogs and then happen to get nauseous, hot dogs will probably be unappetizing to you even if you know the hot dogs did not cause your sickness.
What are the two motivation types in regards to hunger?
Externals, (motivated to eat by external fod cues), and internals, (less affected by teh presence and presentation of food; respond more often to internal hunger cues)
What is the James-Lange Theory of emotion?
Biological leads to psychological
What is the Cannon-Bard Theory of emotion?
Biological and psychological occur simultaneously, (impulse sent to thalamus, which sends to cortex and ANS)
What is Staneley Schacter's two-factory theory?
Our physical response and our cognitive labels combine to cause any particular emotional response; people who are already physiologically aroused experience more intesne emotions than unaroused people when both groups are exposed to the same stimuli
What did Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe do?
Desigend one of the first instruments to measure stress. Their social readjustment rating scale measured stress using life-change units
Who formulated the general adaption syndrome?
Hans Seyle
What did Hans Seyle do?
Formulated the general adaption syndrome
Who created the SRS?
Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe
What are the 5 reflexes in babies?
1. Rooting
2. Sucking
3. Grasping
4. Moto- when starteld, a baby will fling his or her limbs out and then quickly retract them
5. Babinski - when a baby's foot is stroked, he or she will spread the toes.
When do babies see normally?
1 year
What did Harry Harlow do?
Raised baby monkeys with two artificial wire frame figures made to resemble mother monkeys; when infant monkeys were frightened, they preferrred the soft mother even over the figure that fed them
What did Mary Ainsworth do?
Placed babies in strange situations to measure their levels of attachment:
1. Secure - distressed when parents leave and come to them when they return
2. Avoidant - resist being held; explore situation
3. Anxious/ambivalent/resistant - have ambivalent reactions to parents; extreme stress when parents leave, but resist being comforted by them when they return
Which to researchers are associated with attachment?
Harry Harlow and Mary Ainsworth
What are Freud's stages of psycho-sexual development?
1. Oral, (birth to 1)
2. Anal, (1 to 3) - during toilet training
3. Phallic, (3 to 5)
4. Latency, (6 until puberty)
5. Genital, (after puberty)
What did Erik Erikson do?
Created the psychosocial stages of development.
What are the 8 psychosocial stages of development?
1. Trust/mistrust
2. Autonomy/shame and doubt
3. Initiative/guilt
4. Industry/inferiority
5. Identity/role confusion
6. Intimacy/isolation
7. Generativity/stagnation
8. Integrity/despair
Who created the cognitive-development theory?
Jean Piaget
What are Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development and during what ages do they occur?
1. Sensorimotor, (object permanence) - birth to 2
2. Preoperational - 2 to 7
3. Concrete operational, (concepts of conservation) - 8 to 12
4. Formal operational, (hypothesis testing) - 12 to adulthood
Who created stages of moral development?
Lawrence Kohlberg
Who criticized Kohlberg and why?
Carol Gilligan - ponited out that Kohlberg developed the model based on the responses of boys
What are the 3 perspectives on gender development?
1. Biopsychological - nature/nurture; women have larger corpus callosums than men
2. Psychodynamic theory - gender developmetn as a competition, (Oedpius/Electra complexes)
3. Social-cognition - effects of society and our ownt hoguths about gender on role development
What happens when the oral stage is not fulfilled?
Oral fixation tendency to overeat, propensity to chew gum, an addiction to smoking
What happens when the anal stage is not fulfilled?
Anal expulsive personality - messy and diorganized
Did Freud write about the subconscious or the unconscious?
What are the 9 defense mechanisms?
1. Repression
2. Denial
3. Displacement - directing feelings towards another person
4. Projection - reversing feelings; (she hates me)
5. Reaction formation - expressing opposite of how one feels
6. Regression
7. Rationalization
8. Intellectualization
9. Sublimation - changing towards a different goal
What are 4 criticisms of Freud?
1. Little empirical evidence supports it;
2. Little predictive power
3. Overestimating important of early childhood and of sex
4. Feminists find him objectionable
Who are two psychodynamisitcs or neo-Freudians?
Carl Jung and Alfred Adler
What did Jung postulate?
Personal unconscious and the collective unconscious, (shadow is the evil side of personality and persona is people's creation of a public image)
What did Adler postulate?
Peopl are motivated by the fear of failure, (inferiority), and the desire to achieve, (superiority)
What is the nomothetic approach in trait theory?
Same basic set of traist can be used to describe all people's personalities
Who were 2 men who followed the nomothetic approach?
1. Hans Eyeseck - introversion/extroversion and stable/unstable
2. Raymond Cattell - 16 personality factors, (big 5 - extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience, and emotional stability)
What are the big 5 personality factors?
1. Extraversion
2. Agreeableness
3. Conscientiousness
4. Openness to experience
5. Emotional stability
Define factor analysis.
Allows reserachers to use correlations between traist in order to see which traist cluster together as factors.
What did Gordon Allport believe?
Although there were common trast useful in describing all people, a full understanding of someon'es personality was impossible without looking at their personal traits
What is cardinal disposition?
A small number of people are so profoundly influenced by one trait that it plays a prirvotal role in virtually everything they do.
What did Hippocrates believe influenced personality?
Relative levels f 4 humors in the body, (blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phelgm)
What was William Sheldon's thoeyr?
Somatotype theory - three body types determine personality:
1. Endomorphs, (fat) - friendly and outgoing
2. Mesomorphs, (muscular) - aggressive
3. Ectomorphs, (thin) - shy and secretive
What was Albert Bandura's theory of personality?
Triadic reciprocality - personality is created by an interaction between the person, the environment, and the behavior, (recipricol determinism); he also posited self-efficacy - the extent to which people are optimistic about their own ability to get things done
What was George Kelly's theory of personality?
Personal-construct theory - people develop a personality in their attempt to understand their world; construct pairs ofoppsites, such as fair-unfair, smart-dumb, and exciting-dull; based on fundamental postulate - people's behavior is influenced by their cognitions adn that by knowing how people have behaved in the past, we can predict how they will act in the future
Who developed the locus of control concept?
Julian Rotter
What is determinism?
The bleief that what happens is dictated by what happened in the past
What is the third force?
The humanistic idea that free wil exists; in opposition to the determinism
Who created the idea of unconditioned positive regard in order to achieve self-actualization?
Carl Rogers
What are projective tests?
Involve asking people to interpret ambiguous stimuli.
What's a famous projective test?
Thematic apperception test - constist of a number of cards, each which contains a picture. People are asked to describe what's happening in the pictures
What is a famous self-report inventory?
Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory
What does the Barnum effect help explain?
Why astrologers, psychics, and fortunetellers are able can manipulate people, based on their tendency to see themselves in stock descriptions
What are 30 ways to test reliability?
1. Split-half - randomly dividing a test into two different sections and then correlating people's performances on the two halves.
2. Equivalent-form reliability - correlation between performances on the different forms of the test
3. Test-retest - correlation between a person's score on one administration of te test and their score on a subsequent administration
What are the 3 types of validity, (one has 2 subdivisions)?
1. Face validity - validity of the content
2. Criterion-related validity - concurrent validity, (accuracy in describing characteristcs the person has now), and predictive validity
3. Construct validity - most meaningful; correlate perspective performance on this measure with their perforamcne on any new measure
What are the 5 (psychologists's) theories of intelligence?
1. Spearman - single factor, (underlying g factor for all specific, s, abilities)
2. Thurstone/Guilford - comprised of several main abilities
3. Gardner - multiple intelligences, (linguistic, logical-mathematical, and spatial)
4. Goleman - emotionali intelligences, (people with highest IQ's are not always the most successful)
5. Sternberg - triarchic theory
What were Gardner's 3 multiple intelligences?
1. Linguistic
2. Logical-mathematical
3. Spatial
What is Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence?
3 types of intelligence exist:
1. Componential/analytic
2. Experience - use experiences in new and creative ways
3. Contextual/practical - street-smart
What are 2 well-known IQ tests?
1. Stanford-Binet - most typical
2. WAIS - scores standardized around 100, with standard deviation of 15
What are the ranges for heritability?
0 to 1; 1 means that genetics are totally responsible for differences in the trait
What is the Flynn effect?
performance on IQ tests have been increasing steadily throughout the century
Does the DSM contain discussion of hte causes or treatment of various disorders?
No, because adherents to each of the psychological persepctives diagree
What is a somatoform disorder?
A person manifests a psychological problem through a physiological symptom, such as hypocondriasis
What is conversion disorder?
People report physical problems, such as paralysis or blindness and they will, in fact, be unable to move their arms or see with no apparent biological reason
What are the 2 types of amnesia?
Psychogenic, (no physiological basis for disruption in memory), and organic
What happens to people who have fugue?
Experience psychogenic amnesia and find themselves in an unfamiliar enviroinment
What does Aaron Beck, a cognitive theorist, believe is the cause of depression?
Unreasonable negative ideas about themselves, their wordl, and their futures, (cognitive triad). People who make internal, global, and stable atributions for bad events are more likely to be depressed
Who theorized posited helplessness?
Martin Seligman
What are the fundamental symptoms of schizophrenia?
Disordered, distorted thinking often demonstrated through delusions and/or hallucinations.
Do people with schizophrenia have split personalities?
No; break from reality, not from person's consciousness
What are the 4 types of schizophrenics?
1. Disorganized - odd use of language, (neologisms, clang associations, inappropriate affect, and flat affect)
2. Paranoid
3. Catatonic - odd movements; waxy fleibility
4. Undifferentiated - disordered thinking, but no symptoms of other types
What are the 4 characteristics of disorganized schizophrenics?
1. Create new words, (neologisms)
2. String together series of nonsense rhyming words, (clang associations)
3. Inappropriate affect - respond inappropriately
4. Flat affect - no response at al
Is there a heritable correlation of schizophrenia?
What is the double blind theory of schizo. causation?
People develop schizo., because given contradictory messages
What is the characteristic symptom of someone with a personality disorder?
Little regard for other people's feelings
What are the 5 types of personality disorders?
1. Dependent - relay too much on the attention and help of others
2. Paranoid
3. Narcissistic
4. Histrionic
5. Obsessive-compulsive
What are paraphilia?
People who are sexually attracted to an object, person, or activity not usually seen as sexual
What is voyeur?
Enjoying watcing others engage in sexual behavior
What is the difference between masochism and sadism?
Masochism - pain to oneself
Sadism - pain to others
What did the Rosenhan Study demonstrate?
The influence of labels, (while in institutions, the researchers' every behavior was interpreted as a sign of their disorder)
What are the 3 types of psychological prevention?
1. Primary - reduce the incidence of societal problems, such as joblessness or homelessness
2. Secondary - working with people at-risk for developing specific problems
3. Tertiary - aims to keep people's mental health issues from becoming more severe
What is symptom substitution?
The psychoanalytic view that arfter a person is successfully treated for one psychological disorder, that person begins to experience a new psychological problem
What are insight therapies?
Highlight the important of the patient's/clients gaining an undersatnding of their peoblems; (psychoanalytic)
What are exestential therapies?
Focus on helping clients achieve a subjectively meaningful perceptin of their lives.
With what drugs is schizo. usually treated?
Antipsychotic, such as Thorazine or Haldol; (block receptor sites for dopamine)
What do antipsychotic drugs often result in?
Tardive dyskinesai - Parkinsonian-like, chronic muscle tremors
What are the 3 most common drugs used to treat unipolar depresion?
1. Tricyclic antidepressants
2. Monoamine oxidase, (MAO), inhibitors
3. Serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor drugs, such as Prozac
What are the 2 main types of anti-anxiety drugs?
1. Barbiturates, such as Miltown
2. Benzodiazepines, such as Xanax and Valium
How does a bilateral ECT work?
Most effective form of ECT; electroic shock causes pateitns to experience a brief seizure; following seizure, pateitns briefly lose consciousness; benefits that result may be from a change in the brain's blood flow
What types of messages are most effective?
Those that arouse fear, (though too much fear can cause people to react negatively to the message itself)
What is the cognitive dissonance theory?
Based on the idea that people are motivated to have consistent attitudes and behaviors
Who did an experiment involving the cognitive dissonance theory?
Festinger and Carlsmith - subject paid $1 to lie changed ther attitudes more than subjects paid $20 to lie
What are the types of attribution?
dispositional/person attribution versus situation attribution

stable/unstable attribution
What is Harold Kelley's attribution theory?
People base their attributions based on 3 kinds of information: dconsistency, distinctiveness, and consensus
Who demonstrated self-fulfilling prophecies and what was the name of their experiment?
Rosenthal and Jacobson; "Pygmalion in the Classroom"
What is the fundamental attribution erro?
When looking at the behavior of others, people tend to overestimate the important of dispositional factors and underestimate the role of situational factors.
What is the just-world belief?
People evidence a bias toward thinking that bad things happen to bad people
What is the contact theory?
Contact between hostile groups will reduce animosity if made to work towards a superordinate goal
What are the 2 types of frustration?
1. Instrumental - intended to secure aparticular end
2. Hostile - no clear purpose
What is the frustration-aggression hypothesis?
Holds that the feeling of frustration makes aggression more likely
What is pluralistic ignorance?
People seen to decide what constitutes approrpiate behavior in a situation by looking to others
What causes social facilitation and what causes social impairment?
When an easy task is being performed, the presence of others improves performance, (social facilitatioN); when a difficult task is being performed, the presence of others hinders performance, (social impairment)
Who experimented on conformity?
Solomon Asch - 1/3 of time when confederates gave incorrect answers, subjects conformed