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### 90 Cards in this Set

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 What are two formulas for impulse? I = ΔP I = FΔt What is a perfectly inelastic colliswion? The colliding objects stick together after impact. What causes a collision to be inelastic? Energy is lost, (to heat, sound, etc.); if energy is not lost to these sources, the collision is elastic What is the difference in the formulas between Gravitational force and Gravitational potential energy? F = GMM/r2 PE = GMM/r What is simple harmonic motion the study of? Oscillations When do objects undergo oscillation? When they experience a restoring force. What is a restoring force? Brings objects back to the equilibrium position What is the relation between force and frequency. f = 1/T -or- T = 1/f (Frequency is in cycles per second, whereas period is in seconds per cycle) What is the formula for the period of a spring? T = 2π√(m/k) What is the formula for the period of a simple pendulum? T = 2π√(L/g) Describe heat. A type of energy that can be transfered from one body to another. Energy must be transferred in order to be called heat. Heat can be gained or lost, but not possessed. Is it correct to say, "a gas has 3,000 J of heat.?" No, because heat cannot be possessed. A gas can, however, have 3,000 J of internal energy What is internal energy? The sum of the energies of all of the molecules in a substance. If two bodies have the same temperature, do they necessarily contain the same amount of internal energy? No What is the formula for thermal expansion? ΔL=αLoΔT What does it mean when metals have high α-constnats?w They expand a lot when heated, (such as copper) Besides PV=nRT, what is another ideal gas formula? PV=NkT, (k=1.38×10^-23 J/K) What is the formula that gives the realtionship etween the internal energy of a gas and its temperature? U=(3/2)NkT=(3/2)nRT What is the RMS formula? v=√(3kT/m) If a gas's volume expands, is work done on the gas or by the gas, (is it positive or negative)? By; negative How does a heat engine function? Heat is added to a gas, making it expand, allowing it to do work. What equals 0 in an isothermal process? ΔU How can you increrase the temp. of a gas in an adiabatic process? Pushing down on the piston. What is the second law of thermodyynamics? Heat flows naturally from a hot object to a cold object. What would it mean if the efficiency of an engine were equal to 1? All the heat in the hot stuff would be turned into work What is the formula for ideal efficiency? e= (Th-Tc)/Th If efficiency ever equal to 1? No What is a "Carnot engine?" Operates at the maximum possible efficiency. How does a refrigerator work? Work is done in order to allow heat to flow from cold stuff to hot stuff. If the cycle is clockwise, are you looking at a heat engine or a refrigerator? Heat engine. What must happen for entropy to decrease? Work must be done on the system. What are the standard units of density? kg/m^3 What is specific gravity? Comparison of the denisty of a substance to that of water. Lead's specific gravity it 11, because it is 11 times more dnese than water. In a water tower, does horizontal or vertical height, (or both), determine the pressure? Vertical height only; horizontal distance is irrelevant. What is the absolutey pressure of a fluid? P=Po+ρgh What is Gauge pressure? Just the ρgh part. What is the Po of the atmosphere? 1×10^5 N/m^2 What is Archimedes' principle? Fb=(ρ fluid)(V submerged)g (ρ fluid)(V submerged) = (ρ iceberg)(V iceberg) What is the formula for volume flow rate? Vol. flow rate = Av What is the principle of continuity? The voluneme flow rate is equal at all points within an isolated stream of fluid. What is Bernoulli's Eq.? P+ρgh+1/2ρv^2=P+ρgh+1/2ρv^2 When is Bernoulli's Eq. useful? Whenever you have a fluiud flowing from a thinner point in a pipe to a wider point in a pipe, for example. What is gauge pressure in relation to Bernoulli's Eq.? **P1-P2**=ρgh+1/2ρv^2-(ρgh+1/2ρv^2) What is an electric field? A property of a region of space that affects charged objects in that region of space. A charged particl ein an electric field will experience an electric force, akin to the gravtational force we feel. Is an electric field a scalar or a vector? Vector What are the two formulas associated with the double-slit experiment? 1. Label x, L, and d on a double slit diagram. 2. What is the formula to determine the energy of the nth energy level? 3. What is the value of h in eV? 4.14×10^-15 eV*s What is an eV a unit of? The amount of charge required to move a charge, e. through 1-volt potential difference. What is the relationship between f, λ, and v? f=v/λ In the equation, Ptot=Patm + pgh, what can replace pgh? F/A = mg/A What is the formula for Electric PE? Electric PE=qV What is the equation that shows electric PE is equal to electric KE? qV = (1/2)mv^2 How is the DeBroglie Wavelength calculated? λ=h/(pmax) What is the mass defect? H---He + H + n mass H = mass HE + mass H + mass n + mass defect How is the energy of the mass defect calculated? E=(mass defect)c^2 What is the relationship between kg and u, (amu)? 1.66×10^-27 kg/u What is absolute pressure? Patm + Pgh What is the field inside any conductor at equilibrium? 0 What is magnetic flux a measurement of? The # of magnetic field lines passing through an area. What is the formula for magnetic flux in a circlular loop? 4. What are the formula(s) for emf in a circular loop in a magnetic field? 5. What is the formula for emf in a rectangular loop? 6. How can you induce a constant current in a loop in a magnetic field? Rotate loop about an axis in the plane. In a graph of Kmax vs. f, what is the slope equal to? h, (Planck's Constant) What is the magnetic force on a wire? F=ILB What is the magnetic force on a particle? F=qvB What is the equation for equivalent capacitance in a series? 1/Ceq. = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/C3 + 1/C4 +...1/Cn What is the equation for equivalent capacitance in parallel? Ceq. = C1 + C2 + C3 + C4 +...Cn What is the formula for the charge stored in a capacitator? Q=CV What is the formula for the wavelength in a nodal system? 2(L2-L1)=λ Does frequency change depending on the substance the wave is traveling through? No As temperature increases, does the speed of sound in air increase, decrease, or remain the same? Increase Current is the same in series/parallel? Series Voltage is the same in series/parallel? Parallel If work is done, is it positive or negative? Negative If a free body diagram occurs under water, what additional force do you have to take into account? Fbuoyant What is atmospheric pressure? 1×10^5 Pa = 1 atm What is atmospheric pressure in atmospheres? 1 atm What is the density of water? 1×10^4 g/m^3 What is the force of one charged particle on another? 7. What is the force of a plate/field on a charged particle? F=qE What is internal energy a function of? Temperature What is entropy a function of? Physical state; if physical state is the same at the beginning and at the end, no change in entropy What is the relationship between h, λ, c, and E? E=(hc)/λ What is the relationship between f, h, and E? E=h/f What is the relationship between p, h, and λ? p=h/λ What is the relatinshpi between c, E, and p? E=pc In which situations are "pgh" and "pVg" used? pgh: Pressure pVg: Fbuoyancy